Siddur

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A siddur (Hebrew: סדור[siˈduʁ] ; plural סדורים, siddurim [siduˈʁim]) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. (The word "siddur" comes from a Hebrew root meaning "order".)[1] This article discusses how some of these prayers evolved, and how the siddur, as it is known today has developed. A separate article, Jewish prayer, discusses the prayers that appear in the siddur, and when they are said.

History of the siddur[edit]

The earliest parts of Jewish prayer book are the Shema Yisrael ("Hear O Israel") (Deuteronomy 6:4 et seq), and the Priestly Blessing (Numbers 6:24-26), which are in the Torah. A set of eighteen (currently nineteen) blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah (Hebrew, "standing [prayer]"), is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra, at the end of the Biblical period.

The name Shemoneh Esreh, literally "eighteen", is an historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized. Even at that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, and varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe that parts of the Amidah came from the Hebrew apocryphal work Ben Sira.

According to the Talmud, soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne, under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II and his colleagues. However, the precise wording was still left open. The order, general ideas, opening and closing lines were fixed. Most of the wording was left to the individual reader. It was not until several centuries later that the prayers began to be formally fixed. By the Middle Ages the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, and in the form in which they are still used today.

The siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as 1486, though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in 1865[citation needed]. The siddur began appearing in the vernacular as early as 1538. The first - unauthorized - English translation, by Gamaliel ben Pedahzur (a pseudonym), appeared in London in 1738; a different translation was released in the United States in 1837.[2]

Creating the siddur[edit]

Readings from the Torah (five books of Moses) and the Nevi'im ("Prophets") form part of the prayer services. To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns.

The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook was drawn up by Rav Amram Gaon of Sura, Babylon, about 850 CE. Half a century later Rav Saadia Gaon, also of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic. These were the basis of Simcha ben Samuel's Machzor Vitry (11th century France), which was based on the ideas of his teacher, Rashi. Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, and has had some influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had the same basic order and contents.

Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century; siddurim have also been published reflecting the views of Jacob Emden and the Vilna Gaon.

Different Jewish rites[edit]

Main article: Nusach
Nusach Ashkenaz Siddur prayer book from Irkutsk, Russia, printed in 1918

There are differences among, amongst others, the Sephardic (including Spanish and Portuguese), Teimani (Yemenite), Chasidic, Ashkenazic (German-Polish), Bené Roma or Italkim and Romaniote (Greek, once extending to Turkey and perhaps the southern Italian peninsula) liturgies. Most of these are slight differences in the wording of the prayers; for instance, Oriental Sephardic and some Hasidic prayer books state "חננו מאתך חכמה בינה ודעת", "Graciously bestow upon us from You wisdom (ḥochmah), understanding (binah) and knowledge (daat)", in allusion to the Kabbalistic sefirot of those names, while the Nusach Ashkenaz, as well as Western Sephardic and other Hasidic versions retain the older wording "חננו מאתך דעה בינה והשכל", "Graciously bestow upon us from You knowledge, understanding, and reason". In some cases, however, the order of the preparation for the Amidah is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales.

Some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be very overtly kabbalistic, depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria. This is partly because the Tetragrammaton frequently appears with varying vowel points beneath the letters (unpronounced, but to be meditated upon) and different Names of God appear in small print within the final hei (ה) of the Tetragrammaton. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah that is printed in the outline of a menorah, and the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm.

The Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot ("To You, God, is the greatness [gedullah], and the might [gevurah], and the glory [tiferet], longevity [netzach],..." etc.), these are not easily seen unless the reader is already initiated. It is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is usually sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm. The ark is opened for the duration of the song.

Hasidim, though usually ethnically Ashkenazi, usually use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari, in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria, often called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion". Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borrowed many elements from Sephardi and other traditions, since he felt that they followed Kabbalah and Halacha more faithfully. The Ari did not publish any siddur, but orally transmitted his particular usages to his students with interpretations and certain meditations.[3] Many siddurim containing some form of the Sephardic rite together with the usages of the Ari were published, both by actual Sephardic communities and for the use of Hasidim and other Ashkenazim interested in Kabbalah. In 1803, Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi compiled an authoritative siddur from the sixty siddurim that he checked for compliance with Hebrew grammar, Jewish law, and Kabbalah: this is what is known today as the "Nusach Ari", and is used by Lubavitch Hasidim. Those that use Nusach HaAri claim that it is an all-encompassing nusach that is valid for any Jew, no matter what his ancestral tribe or identity, a view attributed to the Maggid of Mezeritch.

The Mahzor of each rite is distinguished by hymns (piyyutim) composed by authors (payyetanim). The most important writers are Yose ben Yoseh, probably in the 6th century, chiefly known for his compositions for Yom Kippur; Eleazar Kalir, the founder of the payyetanic style, perhaps in the 7th century; Saadia Gaon; and the Spanish school, consisting of Joseph ibn Abitur (died in 970), ibn Gabirol, Isaac Gayyath, Moses ibn Ezra, Abraham ibn Ezra and Judah ha-Levi, Moses ben Nahman (Nahmanides) and Isaac Luria. In the case of Nusach HaAri, however, many of these High Holiday piyyutim are absent: the older piyyutim were not present in the Sephardic rite, on which Nusach HaAri was based, and the followers of the Ari removed the piyyutim composed by the Spanish school.

Complete versus weekday siddurim[edit]

Some siddurim have only prayers for weekdays; others have prayers for weekdays and Shabbat (Jewish Sabbath). Many have prayers for weekdays, Shabbat, and the three Biblical festivals, Sukkot (the feast of Tabernacles), Shavuot (the feast of weeks) and Pesach (Passover). The latter are referred to as a Siddur Shalem ("complete siddur").

Variations and additions on holidays[edit]

There are many additional liturgical variations and additions to the siddur for the Yamim Noraim (The "Days of Awe"; High Holy Days, i.e. Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur). As such, a special siddur has developed for just this period, known as a mahzor (also: machzor). The mahzor contains not only the basic liturgy, but also many piyutim, Hebrew liturgical poems. Sometimes the term mahzor is also used for the prayer books for the three pilgrim festivals, Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot.

Popular siddurim[edit]

Below are listed many popular siddurim used by religious Jews.

Variety of popular Siddurim.

Ashkenazi Orthodox[edit]

Main articles: Ashkenazi Jews and Orthodox Judaism
  • Siddur Ha-Shalem (a.k.a. the Birnbaum Siddur) Ed. Philip Birnbaum. The Hebrew Publishing Company. ISBN 0-88482-054-8 (Hebrew-English)
  • The Metsudah Siddur: A New Linear Prayer Book Ziontalis. (Hebrew-English)
  • The Authorised Daily Prayer Book of the British Commonwealth, translation by Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks (the new version of "Singer's Prayer Book") (Hebrew-English)
  • The Artscroll Siddur, Mesorah Publications (In a number of versions including an interlinear translation and fairly popular today.) (Hebrew, Hebrew-English, Hebrew-Russian, Hebrew-Spanish, Hebrew-French) The " great innovation" of the Artscroll was that it was the first siddur " made it possible for even a neophyte ba’al teshuvah (returnee to the faith) to function gracefully in the act of prayer, bowing at the correct junctures, standing, sitting and stepping back" at the correct place in the service. "[4]
  • Siddur Rinat Yisrael, Hotsa'at Moreshet, Bnei Brak, Israel. (In a number of versions, popular in Israel.) (Hebrew)
  • Siddur Siach Yitzchak (Hebrew and Dutch), Nederlands-Israelitisch Kerkgenootschap, Amsterdam 1975 (in a number of editions since 1975) ISBN 978-90-71727-04-7
  • Siddur Tefilas Kol Peh (Hebrew)
  • Siddur Tefilas Sh'ai, Feldheim Publishers : Israel/NewYork (Hebrew)
  • Siddur HaGra (reflecting views of the Vilna Gaon)
  • Siddur Aliyos Eliyahu (Popular among followers of the Vilna Gaon who live in Israel and abroad) (Hebrew)
  • Siddur Kol Bo (Hebrew)
  • Koren Sacks Siddur (Hebrew-English), Koren Publishers Jerusalem: based on latest Singer's prayer book, above (described as the first siddur to "pose a fresh challenge to the ArtScroll dominance."[5])
  • Siddur Nehalel beShabbat, the complete Shabbat siddur in the projected siddur Nehalel series (Nevarech Press, Hebrew and English), in which photographs juxtaposed with the texts portray their meanings. The purpose of this innovation is to direct the user's attention to the meanings of the traditional prayers, thus contributing to the achieving of kavanah, a central requirement of authentic prayer.[6]

Chassidic Siddurim[edit]

Italian Rite[edit]

Main article: Italian Jews

Sephardic[edit]

Spanish and Portuguese Jews[edit]

(Characterised by relative absence of Kabbalistic elements:)

  • Book of Prayer: According to the Custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews David de Sola Pool, New York: Union of Sephardic Congregations, 1979
  • Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews’ Congregation, London. Volume One: Daily and occasional prayers. Oxford (Oxford Univ. Press, Vivian Ridler), 5725 - 1965.

Greek, Turkish and Balkan Sephardim[edit]

(Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:)

  • Siddur Zehut Yosef (Daily and Shabbat) According to the Rhodes and Turkish Traditions, Hazzan Isaac Azose, Seattle, Washington: Sephardic Traditions Foundation, 2002

North African Jews[edit]

(Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:)

  • Siddur Od Abinu Ḥai ed. Levi Nahum: Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Livorno text, Libyan tradition)
  • Mahzor Od Abinu Ḥai ed. Levi Nahum (5 vols.): Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Livorno text, Libyan tradition)
  • Siddur Vezaraḥ Hashemesh, ed. Messas: Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Meknes tradition)
  • Siddur Ish Matzliaḥ, ed. Mazuz, Machon ha-Rav Matzliah: B'nei Brak (Hebrew only, Djerba tradition)
  • Siddur Farḥi (Hebrew with Arabic translation, Egypt)
  • Siddur Tefillat ha-Ḥodesh, ed. David Levi, Erez : Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Livorno text, Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian traditions)[2]
  • Siddur Patah Eliyahou, ed. Joseph Charbit, Colbo: Paris (Hebrew and French, Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian traditions)[3]
  • Mahzor Zechor le-Avraham, Yarid ha-Sefarim : Jerusalem (Based on the original Zechor le-Abraham: Livorno 1926, Hebrew only, Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian traditions, days of awe only)
  • Siddur Darchei Avot (Moroccan)
  • Siddur Oro shel Olam

Middle Eastern Mizrachim (Sephardim)[edit]

(Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:)

Syrian[edit]
  • The Aram Soba Siddur: According to the Sephardic Custom of Aleppo Syria Rabbi Moshe Antebi, Jerusalem: Aram Soba Foundation, 1993
  • Siddur Abodat Haleb / Prayers from the Heart Rabbi Moshe Antebi, Lakewood, New Jersey: Israel Book Shop, 2002
  • Kol Yaacob: Sephardic Heritage Foundation, New York, 1990.
  • Bet Yosef ve-Ohel Abraham: Jerusalem, Manṣur (Hebrew only, based on Baghdadi text)
  • Orḥot Ḥayim, ed. Yedid: Jerusalem 1995 (Hebrew only)
  • Siddur Kol Mordechai, ed. Faham bros: Jerusalem 1984 (minhah and arbit only)
  • Abir Yaakob, ed. Haber: Sephardic Press (Hebrew and English, Shabbat only)
  • Orot Sephardic Siddur, Eliezer Toledano: Lakewood, New Jersey, Orot Inc. (Hebrew and English: Baghdadi text, Syrian variants shown in square brackets)
  • Maḥzor Shelom Yerushalayim, ed. Albeg: New York, Sephardic Heritage Foundation 1982
Israeli, following Rabbi Ovadia Yosef[edit]

These siddurim follow the halakha of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (1920–2013)[7] a Talmudic scholar, an authority on Jewish religious law, and spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-orthodox Shas party. Yosef served as the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1973 to 1983. Yosef's responsa were highly regarded within Haredi circles, particularly among Mizrahi communities, among whom he was regarded as "the most important living halakhic authority."[8] Guided by the Talmudic dictum that "the power of leniency is greater," one of his fundamental principles of halakhic ruling is that lenient rulings should be preferred over chumra. Yosef saw this as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Sephardic approach to Halakha compared to the Ashkenazi approach. In one of his rulings, he quoted Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai as saying: "The Sephardim are characterized by the quality of kindness and therefore are lenient in the Halakha, and the Ashkenazim are characterized by the quality of power[9] and therefore they rule strictly." Yosef considered this principle an ideal, so that if "he is asked [a question] on a ritual-halakhic matter and succeeds in proving that a lenient position is a correct one from a halakhic standpoint, he sees this as a positive achievement." These principles are reflected in his siddurim.

  • Ohr V’Derech Sephardic Siddur
  • Siddur Yeḥavveh Daat
  • Siddur Avodat Ha-shem
  • Siddur Ḥazon Ovadia
  • Siddur L'maan Shmo
Edot Hamizrach (Iraqi)[edit]
  • Tefillat Yesharim: Jerusalem, Manṣur (Hebrew only)
  • Siddur Od Yosef Ḥai
  • Kol Eliyahu, ed. Mordechai Eliyahu
  • Siddur Rinat Yisrael - (Edot Hamizrach edition), Hotsa'at Moreshet, Bnei Brak, Israel. (Hebrew)

Yemenite Jews (Teimanim)[edit]

Main article: Yemenite Jews

Baladi[edit]

The Baladi Jews (from Arabic balad, country) follow the legal rulings of the Rambam (Maimonides) as codified in his work the Mishneh Torah. Rabbi Maharitz (Mori Ha-Rav Yihye Tzalahh) devised this liturgy to end friction between traditionalists (who followed Ramban's rulings and the siddur as it developed in Yemen) and Kabbalists who followed the innovations of the Ari. This siddur makes very few additions or changes and substantially follows the older Yemenite tradition as it had existed prior to this conflict.

  • Siddur Tiklal: Tzalach Yihiyeh Ben Yehuda, 1800
  • Siddur Tiklal: Torath Avoth [4]
  • Siddur Shivat Tzion: Rabbi Yosef Qafiḥ/Kapach, 1950s
  • Siddur Siaḥ Yerushalayim: [5] (also based on work of Rabbi Yosef Qafiḥ)
  • Tiklal Ha-Mefoar (MAHARITS) Nusahh Baladi, Meyusad Al Pi Ha-Tiklal Im Etz Hayim Ha-Shalem Arukh Ke-Minhag Yahaduth Teiman: Bene Berak : Or Neriyah ben Mosheh Ozeri, [2001 or 2002] [6]

Shami[edit]

The Shami Jews (from Arabic ash-Sham, the north, referring to Palestine or Damascus) represent those who accepted the Sephardic/Palestinian rite and lines of rabbinic authority, after being exposed to new inexpensive, typeset siddurs brought from Israel and the Sephardic diaspora by envoys and merchants in the late 17th century and 18th century.[10][11] The "local rabbinic leadership resisted the new versions....Nevertheless, the new prayer books were widely accepted."[11] As part of that process, the Shami modified their rites to accommodate the usages of the Ari to the maximum extent. The text of the Shami siddur now largely follows the Sephardic tradition, though the pronunciation, chant and customs are still Yemenite in flavour. Most Yemenite Jews living today follow the Shami customs and this rite has long been the more prevalent Yemeni liturgical tradition.[12]

  • Siddur Tefillat HaḤodesh - Beit Yaakov, Nusaḥ Sepharadim, Teiman, and Edoth Mizraḥ
  • Siddur Kavanot HaRashash, Shalom Sharabi, Publisher: Yeshivat HaChaim Ve'Hashalom

Conservative Judaism[edit]

Main article: Conservative Judaism
  • Sabbath and Festival Prayer Book Ed. Morris Silverman with Robert Gordis, 1946. USCJ and RA
  • Weekday Prayer Book Ed. Morris Silverman, 1956. USCJ
  • Weekday Prayer Book Ed. Gershon Hadas with Jules Harlow, 1961, RA.
  • Siddur Sim Shalom Ed. Jules Harlow. 1985, 980 pages, RA and USCJ.
  • Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals Ed. Lawrence Cahan, 1998, 816 pages. RA and USCJ.
  • Siddur Sim Shalom for Weekdays Ed. Avram Israel Reisner, 2003, 576 pages. RA and USCJ.
  • Siddur Va'ani Tefilati Ed. Simchah Roth, 1998, 744 pages. Israeli Masorti Movement and Rabbinical Assembly of Israel. Hebrew.
  • Va'ani Tefilati: Siddur Yisre'eli Ed. Ze'ev Kenan, 2009, 375 pages. Israeli Masorti Movement and Rabbinical Assembly of Israel. Hebrew.
  • Siddur Lev Yisrael Ed. Cheryl Magen, 1998, 432 pages. Camp Ramah. Hebrew.

Feminist[edit]

  • Siddur Nashim: A book of Sabbath Prayers for Women, self-published in 1976 by Naomi Janowitz and Margaret Wenig, which referred to God using female pronouns and imagery, and was the first Sabbath prayer book to do so.[13][14][15]

Progressive and Reform Judaism[edit]

Main article: Reform Judaism
  • Ha-Avodah Shebalev, The prayer book of The Israel Movement for Progressive Judaism, Ed. The Council of Israel Progressive Rabbis (MARAM), 1982
  • The Companion to Ha-Avodah Shebalev published by Congregation Har-El Jerusalem in 1992 to help English-speaking immigrants and visitors; Hebrew pages from the original Ha-Avodah Shebalev, English translations from Gates of Prayer: The New Union Prayer Book with additional translations by Adina Ben-Chorin.
  • Seder ha-Tefillot: Forms of Prayer: Movement for Reform Judaism, London 2008, ISBN 0-947884-13-0; ISBN 978-0-947884-13-0 Official prayer book of the Reform movement in Britain
  • Liberal Jewish Prayer Book: Vol. 1 (Services for Weekdays, Sabbaths, Etc.), 1926, 1937; Vol. 2 (Services for The Day of Memorial {Rosh Hashanah} and The Day of Atonement), 1923, 1937; Vol. 3 (Services for Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles), 1926; all published by the Liberal Jewish Synagogue, London, U.K.
  • Service of the Heart: Weekday Sabbath and Festival Services and Prayers for Home and Synagogue, Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues, London, 1967
  • Gate of Repentance: Services for the High Holidays, Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues, London, 1973
  • Vetaher Libenu: Purify Our Hearts, Congregation Beth El, Sudbury, MA 1980
  • Siddur Lev Chadash, Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues, UK, 1995.
  • Machzor Ruach Chadashah, Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues, London, 2003.
  • Olat Tamid: Book of Prayers for Jewish Congregations
  • All of the following published by the Central Conference of American Rabbis:
    • Union Prayer Book, vol. 1 (Sabbath, Festivals, and Weekdays), 1892, 1895, 1918, 1940; vol. 2 (High Holidays), 1894, 1922, 1945
    • Weekday Afternoon and Evening Services for Use in the Synagogue and the House of Mourning, 1957
    • Gates of Prayer: The New Union Prayer Book, 1975
    • Gates of Prayer for Weekdays and at a House of Mourning, 1975
    • Gates of Prayer: Afternoon and Evening Services and Prayers for the House of Mourning, 1978
    • Gates of Repentance: The New Union Prayer Book, 1978, 1996
    • Gates of Prayer for Shabbat: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1992
    • Gates of Prayer for Weekdays and at a House of Mourning: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1992
    • Gates of Prayer for Weekdays: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1993
    • Gates of Prayer for Assemblies, 1993
    • Gates of Prayer for Shabbat and Weekdays: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1994
  • Seder ha-Tefillot: Forms of Prayer: Movement for Reform Judaism, London 2008, ISBN 0-947884-13-0; ISBN 978-0-947884-13-0 Official prayer book of the Reform movement in Britain
  • Congregation Beit Simchat Torah's Siddur B'chol L'vav'cha, (With All Your Heart) for Friday night services; Publisher: Congregation Beth Simchat Torah (2008); ISBN 0-979400-90-2; ISBN 978-0-979400-90-2
  • Siddur Sha'ar Zahav, the first complete prayer book to address the lives and needs of LGBTQ as well as straight Jews; Publisher: J Levine Judaica & Sha'ar Zahav (2009); ISBN 0-982197-91-8; ISBN 978-0982197-91-2
  • Mishkan T'filah [Tabernacle of Prayer]: A Reform Siddur: Weekdays, Shabbat, Festivals, and Other Occasions of Public Worship; Publisher: J Levine/Millennium; 1ST edition (January 1, 2007); ISBN 0-881231-04-5; ISBN 978-0-881231-03-8
  • Mishkan T'filah for Travelers: A Reform Siddur, 2009
  • Mishkan T'filah for the House of Mourning, 2010
  • Seder Tov Lehodot: Teksten, gebeden en diensten voor weekdagen, Sjabbat en andere gelegenheden, Amsterdam 2000, Verbond van Liberaal-Religieuze Joden in Nederland now Nederlands Verbond voor Progressief Jodendom; ISBN 90-805603-1-6

Reconstructionist Judaism[edit]

Kol Haneshamah: Shabbat Vehagim
  • Prayer Books edited by Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan and others:
    • Sabbath Prayer Book, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1945
    • High Holiday Prayer Book (Vol. 1, Prayers for Rosh Hashanah; Vol. 2, Prayers for Yom Kippur), Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1948
    • Supplementary Prayers and Readings for the High Holidays, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1960
    • Festival Prayer Book, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1958
    • Daily Prayer Book, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1963
  • Hadesh Yameinu (Renew our days): a book of Jewish prayer and meditation, edited and translated by Rabbi Ronald Aigen. Montreal (Cong. Dorshei Emet), 1996.
  • Kol Haneshamah Prayerbook series, ed. David Teutsch:
    • Erev Shabbat: Shabbat Eve, Reconstructionist Press, 1989
    • Shirim Uvrahot: Songs, Blessings and Rituals for the Home, Reconstructionist Press, 1991
    • Shabbat Vehagim: The Sabbath and Festivals, Reconstructionist Press; 3rd edition (August 1, 1998)
    • Limot Hol: Daily Prayer Book, Reconstructionist Press; Reprint edition (September 1, 1998)
    • Kol Haneshamah: Prayers for a House of Mourning, Jewish Reconstructionist Federation (October 10, 2001)
    • Kol Haneshamah: Mahzor Leyamim Nora'Im, Fordham University Press; Bilingual edition (May 1, 2000)

Digital Options[edit]

iPhone[edit]

Android[edit]

Blackberry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The word "seder", referring to the ritual Passover meal, comes from the same root.
  2. ^ Power and Politics: Prayer books and resurrection | Jerusalem Post
  3. ^ Nusach HaAri Siddur, published by Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch.
  4. ^ A New Dialogue With The Divine, May 26, 2009, Jewish Week, Jonathan Rosenblatt [1]
  5. ^ Artscroll facing challenge from Modern Orthodox, April 5, 2009, JTA
  6. ^ Kavanah
  7. ^ "Shas spiritual leader Rabbi Ovadia Yosef dies at 93". The Jerusalem Post. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "Israel News | Online Israeli News Covering Israel & The Jewish World – JPost". Fr.jpost.com. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  9. ^ Referring to the sefirah of Gevurah (strength), also known as Din (strict judgment).
  10. ^ Tobi, Yosef (2004); "Caro's Shulhan Arukh Versus Maimonides' Mishne Torah in Yemen" (electronic version); in Lifshitz, Berachyahu; The Jewish Law Annual 15; Routledge; p. PT253; ISBN 9781134298372; "Two additional factors played a crucial role in the eventual adoption by the majority of Yemenite Jewry of the new traditions, traditions that originate, for thee most part, in the land of Israel and the Sefardic communities of the Diaspora. One was the total absence of printers in Yemen: no works reflecting the local (i. e. baladi) liturgical and ritual customs could be printed, and they remained in manuscript. By contrast, printed books, many of which reflected the Sefardic (shami) traditions, were available, and not surprisingly, more and more Yemenite Jews preferred to acquire the less costly and easier to read printed books, notwithstanding the fact that they expressed a different tradition, rather than their own expensive and difficult to read manuscripts. The second factor was the relatively rich flow of visitors to Yemen, generally emissaries of the Jewish communities and academies in the land of Israel, but also merchants from the Sefardic communities.... By this slow but continuous process, the Shami liturgical and ritual tradition gained every more sympathy and legitimacy, at the expense of the baladi" 
  11. ^ a b Simon, Reeva S.; Laskier, Mikha'el M.; Reguer, Sara (2003). The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in modern times. Columbia University Press. p. 398. ISBN 9780231107969. 
  12. ^ Rabbi Yitzhaq Ratzabi, Ohr Hahalakha: Nusakh Teiman Publishing, Bnei Braq.
  13. ^ http://huc.edu/faculty/faculty/MargaretWenig.shtml
  14. ^ "Spirituality in the United States | Jewish Women's Archive". Jwa.org. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  15. ^ New Jewish Feminism: Probing the Past, Forging the Future - Elyse Goldstein - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  • Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History, Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Publication Society, 1993. This is the most thorough academic study of the Jewish liturgy ever written. Originally published in German in 1913, and updated in a number of Hebrew editions, the latest edition has been translated into English by Raymond P. Scheindlin. This work covers the entire range of Jewish liturgical development, beginning with the early cornerstones of the siddur; through the evolution of the medieval piyyut tradition; to modern prayerbook reform in Germany and the United States.
  • Joseph Heinemann "Prayer in the Talmud", Gruyter, New York, 1977
  • Kavvana: Directing the Heart in Jewish Prayer, Seth Kadish, Jason Aronson Inc., 1997.
  • The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer Macy Nulman, Jason Aronson Inc.,1993. Provides in one volume information on every prayer recited in the Ashkenazi and Sephardic traditions. Arranged alphabetically by prayer, this book includes information on the prayers, their composers and development, the laws and customs surrounding them, and their place in the service.
  • Jakob J. Petuchowski "Contributions to the Scientific Study of Jewish Liturgy" Ktav, New York, 1970
  • Goldschmidt, Meḥqare Tefillah u-Fiyyut (On Jewish Liturgy): Jerusalem 1978
  • Wieder, Naphtali, The Formation of Jewish Liturgy: In the East and the West
  • Reif, Stefan, Judaism and Hebrew Prayer: Cambridge 1993. Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-44087-5, ISBN 0-521-44087-4; Paperback ISBN 978-0-521-48341-4, ISBN 0-521-48341-7
  • Reif, Stefan, Problems with Prayers: Berlin and New York 2006 ISBN 978-3-11-019091-5, ISBN 3-11-019091-5
  • The Artscroll Siddur, Ed. Nosson Scherman, Mesorah Publications. A popular Orthodox prayerbook with running commentary. The amount of commentary varies by version.
  • The Authorised Daily Prayer Book of the British Commonwealth, translation by Rabbi Eli Cashdan. An Orthodox prayerbook widely used in the UK and other Commonwealth countries.
  • Siddur HaEsh (of Fire) in Hebrew Wikibooks
  • Amidah, entry in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, Keter Publishing
  • JNUL Digitized Book Repository, page with links to facsimile prayer books from 1475 to 1981
  • Siddur Audio, website with text and audio of selections from the Siddur

External links[edit]

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