Haftarah

By Wikipedia

The haftarah or (in Ashkenazic pronunciation) haftoroh (alt. haphtara, Hebrew: הפטרה; "parting," "taking leave",[1] plural haftarot or haftoros ) is a series of selections from the books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") of the Hebrew Bible (Tanach) that is publicly read in synagogue as part of Jewish religious practice. The Haftarah reading follows the Torah reading on each Sabbath and on Jewish festivals and fast days. Typically, the haftarah   is thematically linked to the parasha (Torah portion) that precedes it.[2] The haftarah   is sung in a chant (known as "trop" in Yiddish or "Cantillation" in English). Related blessings precede and follow the Haftarah reading.

The origin of haftarah reading is lost to history, and several theories have been proposed to explain its role in Jewish practice, suggesting it arose in response to the persecution of the Jews under Antiochus Epiphanes which preceded the Maccabean revolt, wherein Torah reading was prohibited,[3][4] or that it was "instituted against the Samaritans, who denied the canonicity of the Prophets (except for Joshua), and later against the Sadducees."[3] The Talmud mentions that a haftarah was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who lived c.70 CE,[5] and that by the time of Rabbah (the 3rd century) there was a "Scroll of Haftarot", which is not further described,[6] and in the Christian New Testament several references suggest this Jewish custom was in place during that era.[7]

History[edit]

No one knows for certain the origins of reading the haftarah, but several theories have been put forth. The most common explanation, accepted by some traditional Jewish authorities is that in 168 BCE, when the Jews were under the rule of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, they were forbidden from reading the Torah and made do with a substitute. When they were again able to read the Torah, they kept reading the haftarah as well. However this theory was not articulated before the 14th century, when it was suggested by Rabbi David Abudirham,[8] but this explanation has several weaknesses.[9]

An alternative explanation, offered by Rabbis Reuven Margolies and Samson Raphael Hirsch (except where otherwise identified, this is the Hirsch cited throughout this article), is that the haftarah reading was instituted to fight the influence of those sects in Judaism that viewed the Hebrew Bible as consisting only of the Torah.

But all offered explanations for the origin of reading the haftarah have unanswered difficulties.

Certainly the haftarah was read — perhaps not obligatorily nor in all communities nor on every Sabbath — as far back as circa 70 CE: The Talmud mentions that a haftarah   was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who lived at that time.[10]

Who reads the haftarah[edit]

Unlike the Torah reading, only one person reads the haftarah portion.[11]

The haftarah is traditionally read by the maftir, or the last person to be called up to the Torah scroll.

Traditions varied or evolved with regard to which person could read the haftarah. As an indication that, perhaps to make clear that the haftarah reading was not the same status as the Torah reading, a minor (i.e., a boy not yet bar mitzvah age) was permitted to chant the haftarah (at least on an ordinary Sabbath), and there were even communities where the haftarah reading was reserved exclusively for minor boys. In recent centuries, when the attainment of bar mitzvah age is celebrated with a distinct ceremony, the bar mitzvah boy (now an adult) will read the maftir   portion and the haftarah.[12] In some other communities, the haftarah could only be read by one who had participated in the Torah reading (in some practices, the maftir - the last man to have read from the Torah), or even the whole congregation would read the haftarah to themselves from the available humashim - this evidently to avoid embarrassing a reader who might make a mistake.[13]

Rabbi Yosef Karo reports that for many years there were no set haftarot: the maftir chose an appropriate passage from the Nevi'im.[14] Over time, certain choices became established in certain communities; in contemporary Jewish observance one may not choose his or her own haftarah, explains Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, as that would run against accepted custom.[15] Rabbi Karo's explanation, however, helps to explain why communities have varying customs regarding what to read as haftarah.

What form of the text is read[edit]

Unlike the Torah portion, the haftarah is, nowadays, normally read from a printed book. This may be either a Tanakh (entire Hebrew Bible), a Chumash (or "Humash") (volume containing the Torah with haftarot) or, in the case of the festivals, the prayer book; there are also books containing the haftarot alone in large print. Even when a scroll of haftarah readings is used, that scroll - unlike the Torah scroll - may include such blandishments as the vowel points and cantillation marks.[11]

However, according to most halakhic decisors (posqim ), it is preferable to read the haftarah out of a parchment scroll, and according to a small minority of posqim (mainly the followers of the Vilna Gaon), such a parchment scroll is an absolute requirement. According to some older traditions, the haftarot were read out of a special scroll containing just the selections of the Prophetic Books which were used in actual haftarot; this was known as a Sifra De'aftarta (ספרא דאפטרתא), and can still be found in a few communities today, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic; in some communities the scroll is made of paper. These scrolls sometimes contain vowel points and te`amim (cantillation signs), and sometimes do not. However, the Vilna Gaon instituted that haftarot be read only from scrolls which contained the full text of a Prophetic Book (e.g., full text of Joshua, or full text of Judges, or full text of Isaiah), just as a Torah scroll contains the full text of the Pentateuch. These scrolls are written in accordance with the laws of writing Torah scrolls, and thus - in the opinion of the Vilna Gaon - do not contain vowel points or cantillation signs.[16] Such scrolls are used for the reading of the haftarot in many, perhaps most, Lithuanian-style yeshivot, and in a number of Ashkenazic synagogues, especially in Israel.

Haftarah  blessings and customs[edit]

Blessings both precede and follow the haftarah reading. These blessings are derived from the minor (and uncanonical) Talmudic tractate Messakhet Soferim - also called, simply, Soferim, which dates back to the 7th or 8th century CE.[17] But it is possible that these blessings, or at least some of them, date from before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E.[18] At least some haftarah blessings were in use by the second century (Talmud Babli, Shabbat 24a). The blessings are read by the person to read the haftarah portion; the blessing before the haftarah is read in the tune of the haftarah. The Sephardic practice is to recite, immediately after the text of the haftarah and before the concluding blessings, the verse Isaiah 47:4 ("Our Redeemer! The Lord of Hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel!"). The blessings following the haftarah are standard on all occasions the haftarah is read, except for the final blessing, which varies by date and is omitted on some days.

There are five blessings, one before, and the others after, the haftarah reading. These blessings may go back as far as the haftarah ritual itself.[19] It will be immediately noticed that the haftarah has more, and longer, blessings than the reading of the Torah itself; it is plausible that the reading from the Prophets was given this distinction in order to emphasize the sacred nature of the Prophetic books in the face of Samaritan rejection. [20] If the haftarah is read by the maftir, then he had already recited two blessings for the Torah reading and the five haftarah blessings means he has recited a total of the significant number of seven blessings.[21] The first blessing is not recited until the Torah scroll has been rolled shut.[22] And, similarly, the haftarah text itself - whether a book or a scroll - remains open on the lectern until after the final haftarah blessing is concluded.[23] The blessings have changed but only a little over the centuries, the current text apparently coming from the late 11th century Machzor Vitry, with slight differences from the texts perpetuated in the tractate Messakhet Soferim (possibly 7th or 8th century), and the writings of Maimonides, dating back to the 12th century.[24]

The first blessing, chanted before the haftarah portion read, uses the same melody as the haftarah chant itself, also in minor mode. For this reason, many prayerbooks print this first blessing with the cantillation marks used in the Bible itself for the books of the Prophets, possibly the only instance of a non-biblical text to be equipped with such marks.[25] This initial blessing is only two verses, but both begin with blessing God, yet are not interrupted by an intervening Amen.

The blessings are as follows: The first blessing precedes the reading:

Blessed are you, Lord   [YHVH], our God, King of the universe,
Who has chosen good prophets,
And was pleased with their words spoken in truth.

Blessed are you, Lord, who has chosen the Torah, and his servant Moses,
And his people Israel,
And the prophets of truth and righteousness.
[congregation: Amen.]

This is a somewhat free translation from the very poetic Hebrew text which is the same in both Ashkenazic and Sephardic prayerbooks. This first blessing is straight from the minor tractate Messakhet Soferim, chapter 13, paragraph 7. The first verse praises God, "who has chosen good prophets" (presumably distinguished from false prophets not called by God), the second verse is one of the few places in the Sabbath liturgy that mentions Moses, also chosen by God as were the prophets.[26] In this context, 'Israel' means world Jewry wherever they may be.


Immediately after the last word of the haftarah has been read, many Sefardic, Mizrahi, and Italic congregations traditionally recite two Bible verses, which are then repeated by the maftir: [27]

Our Redeemer - the Lord   of Hosts is his name - the holy one of Israel.   [Isaiah 47:4]
Blessed be the Lord   forever. Amen and Amen.   [Psalm 89:53]


The blessings that follow the reading of the haftarah are chanted in the pentatonic scale.[25]

The second blessing follows the end of the Prophetic reading:

Blessed are you, Lord, our God, King of the universe,
Rock of all the worlds, righteous through all eras,
The trustworthy God, who says and does, who speaks and fulfills,
For all his words are true and just.

Trustworthy are you, Lord, and trustworthy are your words,
And not a single one of your words is recalled as unfulfilled,
Because you are God, king, trustworthy.
Blessed are you Lord, the God who is trustworthy in all his words.
[congregation: Amen.]

Again, this is straight from Messakhet Soferim, paragraphs 8 and 10; Paragraph 9 set out a congregational response which seems not to have been adopted; after the first verse the congregation would rise and say "Faithful are you Lord our God, and trustworthy are your words. O faithful, living, and enduring, may you constantly rule over us forever and ever." This response apparently was in use in antiquity - the Jews of the eastern diaspora would recite this while seated, the Jews of Eretz Yisrael would stand. This practice appears to have ceased during the Middle Ages (it is not in Amram's prayerbook of the 9th century although a phrase of it ["Trustworthy are you Lord our God, living and enduring forever", right after "words are true and just"] is in the Mahzor Vitry , (ca. 1100), but in the 18th century Rabbi Jacob Emden criticized its omission. The second half of the blessing echoes Isaiah 45:23 and 55:11.

The third blessing follows immediately:

Be merciful to Zion, because it is the home of our life,
And save the downtrodden soon, in our own days.
Blessed are you Lord, who makes glad the children of Zion [or   makes Zion to rejoice in her children].
[congregation: Amen.]

Very similar to Messakhet Soferim, paragraph 11, which begins "Comfort   [Naham, instead of rahaym ], Lord  our God, Zion your city..."   and ends "who comforts the children of Zion." Zion means Mount Zion, the hill in Jerusalem on which the Temple stood, although it had been destroyed centuries before this blessing was composed. It is possible that Mount Zion is mentioned deliberately to refute the Samaritans, who centered their devotion to Mount Gerizim instead of Mount Zion. [28] Instead of "save" the downtrodden, Messakhet Soferim has "avenge"   [tenikum , instead of toshiya ], which is used in the Yemenite version of the blessing. By the time of Amram Gaon (9th century) and Saadiah Gaon (10th century), as well as the Mahzor Vitry (ca. 1100), 'be merciful' had replaced 'comfort' - but 'avenge' was still part of the text—and into the last century was still part of both Romaniot and Yemenite versions. It has been suggested that "save" replaced "avenge" in so many communities because of Christian and Moslem censorship or intimidation. [29]

The fourth blessing follows immediately:

Make us glad, Lord  our God,
with the Prophet Elijah, your servant,
and with the kingdom of the house of David, your annointed,
May he arrive soon and bring joy to our hearts.
Let no stranger sit upon his throne,
Nor let others continue to usurp his glory.
For you swore by your holy name that through all eternity his lamp will never go dark.
Blessed are you Lord, shield of David.
[congregation: Amen.]

This is virtually identical to the text in Messakhet Soferim, paragraph 12, until the last line. Before the second "Blessed are you", Soferim contains this line (quoting Jeremiah 23:6): "And in his days may Judah be made safe, and Israel to dwell securely, and he shall be called, 'the Lord   is our vindicator'."   This line remained in Romaniot liturgy. Instead of "Shield of David", Soferim has "who brings to fruition the mighty salvation of his people Israel." But by the 3rd century, "shield of David" was the text in use (Talmud Babli, Pesachim 117b), predating Soferim.
The lines "let no stranger sit on his throne" and "others continue to usurp his glory" might date back to the earliest Talmudic times, when the Hasmoneans and Herodians, rather than true descendants of the royal house of David, were rulers of the Holy Land.[30]

The fifth (final) blessing follows immediately and is a bit longer than the previous one:

For the Torah reading, and for the worship service, and for [the reading from] the Prophets,
And for this Sabbath day [or   for this (holiday )], which you have given us, Lord our God,
For holiness and for respite, for honor and for splendor,
For all of this, Lord our God,
We gratefully thank you, and bless you.
May your name be blessed by every living mouth,
Always and forever.
Blessed are you Lord, who sanctifies the Sabbath.
[congregation: Amen.]

This is from paragraph 13 of Soferim, which does not contain the phrase "by every living mouth", and which concludes with "who sanctifies Israel and the Day of whatever " (this last word to be replaced by the proper name of the holy occasion). Amram Gaon and Maimonides concluded with "who rebuilds Jerusalem," but this appears to have been discarded by all factions. This final blessing is modified for the various festivals and holidays. In all traditions that last phrase, "who sanctifies the Sabbath", is replaced by the appropriate substitute when the occasion is something other than an ordinary Sabbath, if a holiday falling on a Sabbath the phrasing is "And for this Sabbath day and for this day of this...." (if not on a Sabbath, then merely "and for this day of ..."); e.g. (for Passover) "Festival of Matzos", (on Shavuous) "Festival of Shavuous", (on Succos) "Festival of Succos, (on Shemini Atzeres or Simhas Torah) "Festival of the Assembly", (on Rosh Hashana) "Day of Remembrance", (on Yom Kippur) "Day of Atonement", - but it appears from Kol Bo (14th century) that Yom Kippur is the only fast day with a name and therefore this final blessing is not used on other fast days, such as Gedaliah or Esther or Tisha B'Av, since they have no such names that can be inserted into the blessing [31] - and then the blessing concludes:

 "... that you, Lord our God, have given us [(on Sabbaths)   for holiness and respite,]
     for gladness and joy [on Yom Kippur this is replaced with :   for pardon, forgiveness, and atonement],
     for honor and splendor.
For all this Lord our God we thank you and praise you.
May your name be blessed by every living mouth, always and forever.
Blessed are you Lord, who sanctifies [the Sabbath and] Israel and the Festivals."

And on Yom Kippur, replace the last line with :

Blessed are you Lord,
     the King who pardons and forgives our sins and the sins of his people, the family of Israel,
     and who removes our iniquities year after year,
King over all the earth, who sanctifies [the Sabbath,] Israel, and the Day of Atonement.

In ancient times the haftarah, like the Torah, was translated into Aramaic as it was read, and this is still done by Yemenite Jews. The Talmud lays down that, while the Torah must be translated verse by verse, it is permissible to translate other readings in units of up to three verses at a time.

Some generalities have been drawn from the haftarah choices, but they have exceptions. For example, that the haftarot have something in common, or some relevancy, with the Torah reading. But, for example, the relevance for the parsha Bamidbar   (Numbers 1:1-4:20) is the one word, "wilderness", in Hosea 12:16 (and, of course, the haftarot for special Sabbaths and holidays do not require any relation to the Torah reading for that week). Or, that the haftarah should be at least 21 verses in length, to match the minimal Torah reading (see Talmud Babli, Megilla 23a & 23b, which mentions this as a doubtful requirement), but, e.g., the haftarah for Ki Teitzei   (Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19) is, for Ashkenazim and Sephardim, only 10 verses; and the haftarah for Miketz   (Genesis 41:1-44:17) is, for Ashkenazim and Sephardim only 15 verses, and for Italic Jews only 14 verses. The Tosefta mentions a haftarah in antiquity (before the 2nd century C.E.) that was just one verse, namely Isaiah 52:3, and some others that were only four or five verses.[32] Another, that the haftarah reading should not end on a macabre or distressing verse, and therefore either the penultimate verse is repeated at the very end or else verses from elsewhere (sometimes even from different prophetic books) are used as a coda, such as with the haftarah for Tzav   (Leviticus 6:1-8:36) (Ashkenazim and Sephardim skip ahead in the same prophet to avoid concluding with the description of the dire fate of the wicked, a total of 19 verses; Chabad and Yemenite also skip ahead to avoid concluding with a different disquieting verse, a total of 16 verses; Karaites and Romaniote go back and repeat the penultimate verse, promising the reappearance of Elijah, rather than end with the word "desolation" - and the same applies when everyone else reads the same passage on Shabbat Hagadol ). Among the consistent characteristics is that entire verses are read; never is only a part of a verse read.

In antiquity there was no prescribed list of haftarah readings for the year, although the Talmudic literature (including the Midrash and Tosefta) does report some recommendations for specific holidays. It would appear that, in antiquity, the choice of portion from the Prophets was made ad hoc, without regard for the choice of previous years or of other congregations, either by the reader or by the congregation or its leaders; this is evidenced by recommendations in Talmudic literature that certain passages should not be chosen for haftarah readings, which indicates that, to that time, that a regular list for the year's readings did not exist.[33] Further evidence of the lack of an ancient authoritative list of readings is the simple fact that, while the practice of reading a haftarah every Sabbath and most holy days is ubiquitous, the different traditions and communities around the world have by now adopted differing lists, indicating that no solid tradition from antiquity dictated the haftarah selections for a majority of the ordinary Sabbaths.[34]

Haftarah cantillation[edit]

The haftarah is read with cantillation according to a unique melody (not with the same cantillation melody as the Torah). The tradition to read Nevi'im with its own special melody is attested to in late medieval sources, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic. A medieval Sephardic source notes that the melody for the haftarot is a slight variation of the tune used for reading the books of Nevi'im in general (presumably for study purposes), and Jews of Iraqi origin to this day preserve separate "Neviim" and "Haftarah" melodies.

Note that although many selections from Nevi'im are read as haftarot over the course of the year, the books of Nevi'im are not read in their entirety (as opposed to the Torah). Since Nevi'im as a whole is not covered in the liturgy, the melodies for certain rare cantillation notes which appear in the books of Nevi'im but not in the haftarot have been forgotten. For more on this, see Nevi'im.

As a generality, although the Torah was chanted in a major key (ending in a minor key), the haftarah is chanted in a minor key (as is the blessing before the reading of the haftarah) and ends in a pentatonic mode (and the blessings following the haftarah reading are also pentatonic).[35]

The Haftarot for the morning of Tisha b'Av, and for the Shabbat preceding it, are, in many synagogues, predominantly read to the cantillation melody used for the public reading of the Book of Lamentations, or Eicha.

Leonard Bernstein employed the Haftarah cantillation melody extensively as a theme in the second movement ("Profanation") of his Symphony No. 1 ("Jeremiah").

Haftarot on Sabbath afternoon[edit]

Some Rishonim, including Rabbenu Yaakov Tam, report that a custom in the era of the Talmud was to read a haftarah at the mincha service each Sabbath afternoon — but that this haftarah was from the Ketuvim rather than from the Nevi'im. Most halachic authorities maintain that that was not the custom in Talmudic times, and that such a custom should not be followed. In the era of the Geonim, some communities, including some in Persia, read a passage from Nevi'im (whether or not in the form of a haftarah) Sabbath afternoons.[36] Although this practice is virtually defunct, most halachic authorities maintain that there is nothing wrong with it.

Rabbi Reuven Margolies claims that the now-widespread custom of individuals' reciting Psalm 111 after the Torah reading Sabbath afternoon derives from the custom reported by Rabbenu Tam. Louis Ginzberg makes the analogous claim for the custom of reciting Psalm 91 in Motza'ei Shabbat.

Haftarah as a B'nai Mitzvah ritual[edit]

In many communities the haftarah is read by a Bar Mitzvah or Bat Mitzvah at his or her respective ceremonies, along with some, all, or, sometimes none of the Torah portion. This is often referred to, mainly in Hebrew schools and bar preparatory programs, as a haftarah portion.

List of Haftarot[edit]

The selection from Nevi'im [the Prophets] read as the haftarah is not always the same in all Jewish communities. When customs differ, this list indicates them as follows: A=Ashkenazic custom (AF=Frankfurt am Main; AH=Chabad; AP= Poland); I=Italian custom; S=Sephardic and Mizrahi custom (SM=Maghreb [North Africa]; SZ= Mizrahi [Middle and Far East]); Y=Yemenite custom; R=Romaniote (Byzantine, eastern Roman empire, extinct [37] custom; and K=Karaite custom. In some instances the Israeli version of Wikipedia (in Hebrew) of this article had different readings in its list. In several instances, authorities did not agree on the readings of various communities.[38]

Because, in the Diaspora, certain holy days and festivals are observed for an additional day, which day is not so observed in Eretz Yisrael, sometimes different haftarot are read simultaneously inside and outside Eretz Yisrael.


Haftarot for Genesis[edit]

  • Bereshit   (1:1–6:8)
    • A: Isaiah 42:5–43:10
    • S, AF, AH, AP: Isaiah 42:5–21
      • Portuguese (acc to Dotan, Lyons): Isaiah 42:5–21, and 61:10, and 62:5
    • I: Isaiah 42:1–21
    • Y: Isaiah 42:1–16
    • R: Isaiah 65:16–66:11
    • K: Isaiah 65:17–66:13
  • Noach   (6:9–11:32)
    • A, Y, I, SM: Isaiah 54:1-55:5
      • some Y communities: Isaiah 54:1–55:3
    • S, AF, AH: Isaiah 54:1–10
    • K, R: Isaiah 54:9–55:12
  • Lech-Lecha   (12:1–17:27)
    • A, S: Isaiah 40:27–41:16
    • Y, I: Isaiah 40:25-41:17
    • R: Joshua 24:3–23
    • K: Joshua 24:3–18
  • Vayera   (18:1–22:24)
    • A, Y, AH, I, Algiers: Socond Kings 4:1-37
    • S, AF, AP: Second Kings 4:1–23
    • R: Isaiah 33:17–34:13
    • K: Isaiah 33:17–35:12 and verse 35:10
  • Chayei Sarah   (23:1–25:18)
    • A, S, Y, Dardai (Yemeni Orthodox) communities: First Kings 1:1–31
              (some Y add at end First Kings 40:6)
    • I: First Kings 1:1-34
    • K, R: Isaiah 51:2–22
  • Toledot   (25:19–28:9)
    • A, S, I: Malachi 1:1-2:7
    • Y: Malachi 1:1–3:4
    • K, R: Isaiah 65:23–66:18
  • Vayetze   (28:10–32:3)   (S.R. Hirsch notes that there are conflicting traditions about Vayetze;
            what follows is as given in Hirsch, Hertz, Jerusalem Crown, & the Koren Bibles)
    • A: Hosea 12:13–14:10 (and some, including the Perushim (followers of the Vilna Gaon), add at end Joel 2:26-27)
    • some A (acc Dotan): Hosea 12:13-14:10 and Micah 7:18-20; some other A (acc to Dotan) Hosea 12:13-14:7
    • S (also A, acc Cassuto, IDF): Hosea 11:7-12:12
    • K, Amsterdam, Algiers, some SM (and S, acc to ArtScroll): Hosea 11:7-13:5
    • Y, I, Baghdad, Djerba (Tunisia), (and AH, acc to Cassuto): Hosea 11:7-12:14
    • AH (acc to Hirsch): Hosea 11:7-12:12;
    • R: Hosea 12:13–14:3
  • Vayishlach   (32:4–36:43)
    • A (acc to many authorities)(a few A, acc to Dotan; "some" A, acc to Hirsch): Hosea 11:7–12:12
    • S, Y, I, R, K, AH (and many A, acc to Dotan, Lyons)(both A & S, acc to Hirsch & Benisch): Obadiah 1:1-21 (entire book).
    • A (acc to Cassuto): Hosea 12:13-14:9
  • Vayeshev   (37:1–40:23)
    • A, S, I: Amos 2:6–3:8
    • R: Isaiah 32:18–33:18
    • K: Isaiah 32:18–33:22
      (° however,if Vayeshev occurs on the first Sabbath Hanukkah, which happens
              occasionally, the Haftarah is Zechariah 2:14–4:7.)
  • Miketz   (41:1–44:17) °
    • A, S: First Kings 3:15-4:1 °
              ° (This haftarah is very seldom read, it may be the most rarely read, - e.g., in 1996, 2000, 2020, 2023, 2040,
              2047, 2067, 2070, 2074, 2094, 2098 - because this Sabbath is usually the first, sometimes the second,
              Sabbath in Hanukka, in which case a specific holiday haftarah is substituted.)
    • I: First Kings 3:15-28
    • R: Isaiah 29:7-30:4
    • K: Isaiah 29:7-24
  • Vayigash   (44:18;–47:27)
    • A, S, I: Ezekiel 37:15-28
    • R: Joshua 14:6-15:6
    • K: Joshua 14:6-14:15
  • Vayechi   (47:28-50:26, end)
    • A, S, I: First Kings 2:1-12
    • K, R: Second Kings 13:14–14:7

Haftarot for Exodus[edit]

  • Shemot   (1:1–6:8)
    • A, (acc to Dotan) some S: Isaiah 27:6–28:13 & 29:22–23
    • K, R, AH: Isaiah 27:6–28:13
    • S, I: Jeremiah 1:1-2:3
    • (acc to Isr.Wikip.) I: Jeremiah 1:1–1:19
    • Y (also Algiers, Baghdad, Fez [in Morocco], Persia): Ezekiel 16:1–14 (acc to Dotan, 16:1–13)
  • Va'eira   (6:2–9:35)
    • A, S, (acc to Isr.Wikip.) I: Ezekiel 28:25–29:21
    • Y, (acc to Cassuto) I: Ezekiel 28:24-29:21
    • K, R: Isaiah 42:8–43:5
  • Bo   (10:1–13:16)
    • A, S: Jeremiah 46:13–28
    • SM, Algiers, Fez, (acc to Isr.Wikip.) Y: Isaiah 19:1–19:25
    • I, Baghdad, (acc Cassuto) Y: Isaiah 18:7–19:25
    • R: Isaiah 34:11–36:4
    • K: Isaiah 34:11–35:10
  • Beshalach   (13:17–17:16)     (also called Shabbat Shirah )
    • A, AH: Judges 4:4-5:31 (longest Haftarah of the weekly readings)
    • Y, Libya, Fez, Istambul: Judges 4:23–5:31
    • I, (some A, acc to Isr.Wikip.): Judges 4:4–5:3
    • some A (acc to Benisch notes in English) Judges 4:4-24
    • S: Judges 5:1–5:31
    • K, R: Joshua 24:7–24:26
  • Yitro   (18:1–20:26)   (includes The Ten Commandments)
    • A, I, Baghdad, Algiers: Isaiah 6:1-7:6 & 9:5-6
    • S, AH, some I: Isaiah 6:1-13
    • Y: Isaiah 6:1-6:13 & 9:5-6
    • R: Isaiah 33:13–34:10
    • K: Isaiah 33:13–34:8
  • Mishpatim   (21:1–24:18)   °
    • A, S, some I: Jeremiah 34:8-22 & 33:25-26
    • Y: Jeremiah 34:8–35:19
    • I: Jeremiah 34:8–35:11
    • R: Isaiah 56:1–57:10
    • K: Isaiah 56:1–57:2&
          (°   in most years, the Sabbath of Mishpatim is the Sabbath of Parsha Shekalim)
  • Terumah   (25:1–27:19)
    • A, S, I, Y: First Kings 5:26-6:13
    • R: Isaiah 60:17–62:3
    • K: Isaiah 60:17–61:9
  • Tetzaveh   (27:20–30:10)
    • A, S, I, Y: Ezekiel 43:10-27
    • K, R: Jeremiah 11:16–12:15
  • Ki Tissa   (30:11-34:35)
    • A: First Kings 18:1-39
    • S, AH, AF, AP, (& I, acc to Cassuto and Isr.Wikip.): First Kings 18:20-39
    • I: First Kings 18:1-38
    • Y: First Kings 18:1-46
    • R: Isaiah 43:7–44:2
    • K: Isaiah 43:7–44:5
  • Vayakhel   (35:1-38:20) °
            ° (This haftarah is very seldom read — e.g., in 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014,
            2033, 2035, 2038, 2052, 2062 — because this Sabbath is often combined
            with that of Pekudei and very often is also the Sabbath of Shekalim
            or of Hahodesh or of Parah, in which case another haftarah is substituted.)
    • A: First Kings 7:40–50 (AF ends at 8:1)(this is the S haftarah for Pekudei, next week)
    • S, AH, I: First Kings 7:13-26   (in Sephardic practice, this haftarah is very rarely read)
    • Y: First Kings 7:13–22
    • R: First Kings 8:1–8:10
    • K: First Kings 8:1–8:19
  • Pekudei   (38:21–40:38, end)   °
           (°   in most years this haftarah is not read because it falls on the Sabbath
            of Parsha HaHodesh, or, less often, Parsha Shekalim [39])
    • A, AH: First Kings 7:51–8:21
    • S, Y, Baghdad, I: First Kings 7:40–50 (acc to Cassuto, I end with verse 51)
    • AF: First Kings 7:40–8:1
    • I: First Kings 7:40-51
    • R: First Kings 7:27–47
    • K: Jeremiah 30:18–31:13

Haftarot for Leviticus[edit]

  • Vayikra   (1:1–5:26)
    • A, S: Isaiah 43:21–44:23
    • Y, I, some SM: Isaiah 43:21–44:6
    • R: Isaiah 43:21–44:13
    • K: Isaiah 43:21–44:23
  • Tzav   (6:1–8:36)  °
            (°   In many years, this Haftarah is not read because it is also the Shabbat Hagadol, or, less often, the Sabbath of Parsha Zachor or of Parsha Parah.[39])
    • A, S: Jeremiah 7:21–8:3; 9:22–23
    • Y, AH: Jeremiah 7:21–28; 9:22–23
    • I, Fez: Jeremiah 7:21–28; (acc to Isr.Wikip.) I. adds at end Jeremiah 10:6-7
    • K, R: Malachai 3:4–3:24, & 3:23
  • Shemini   (9:1–11:47)
    • A: Second Samuel 6:1–7:17
    • S, AH: Second Samuel 6:1-19 (and some add 7:16–17)
    • Y, I: Second Samuel 6:1–7:3
    • R: Ezekiel 43:27–44:21
    • K: Ezekiel 43:27–44:16
  • Tazria   (12:1–13:59)
    • A, S, I, Y: Second Kings 4:42–5:19
    • K, R: Isaiah 66:7–66:24, & repeat 66:23
  • Tazria  –   Metzora
    • Second Kings 7:3–20
  • Metzora   (14:1–15:33)
    • A, S, AH, R: Second Kings 7:3–20
    • Y, I: Second Kings 7:1–20 & 13:23
    • K: Second Kings 7:3-18
  • Acharei Mot   (16:1-18:30)
            (both Hirsch and the ArtScroll chumashim note that there is some confusion over the
            correct Haftarah. In most years this parsha is combined with next, Kedoshim, so
            the two are seldom distinguished from each other:[40])
    • A (acc to Hirsch, Dotan, & ArtScroll), AH: Amos 9:7-15
    • A, S (acc to Hertz, Hirsch), Berlin, (and, acc to Hirsch, A in Israel): Ezekiel 22:1-19 °
    • S, K, AF (and A, acc to Cassuto, Koren, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Benisch, & Isr.Wikip.): Ezekiel 22:1-16 °
    • R: Ezekiel 22:1-20
            (°   This reading contains the verse, disparaging the city of Jerusalem, which Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus disfavored
              in Megilla 25b.   It was therefore the practice of the Vilna Gaon, of Rabbi Joseph Soloveichik, and others, to read
              the haftarah for the next parsha from Amos, even if this meant repeating the same Amos reading two weeks in a row.)
  • Acharei Mot - Kedoshim
    • A, AH: Amos 9:7-15     (this is contrary to the usual rule that when weekly
              portions must be combined, the second week's haftarah is read)
    • S: Ezekiel 20:2-20
  • Kedoshim   (19:1-20:27)     (again, some confusion)
    • A (acc to ArtScroll): Ezekiel 22:1-16
    • A (acc to Hirsch): Ezekiel 22:1-19
    • A (acc to Cassuto, Hertz, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Benische, Dotan, Koren, & Isr.Wikip.): Amos 9:7-15
    • S, AH, Y, I (acc to Hirsch, and Benisch): Ezekiel 20:1-20
    • S (acc to Cassuto, ArtScroll, Hertz, IDF, Jerusalem Crown, Koren, & Isr.Wikip.; some S acc to Hirsch), some I: Ezekiel 20:2-20
    • Y (acc to Isr.Wikip.): Ezekiel 20:1-15
    • R: Isaiah 3:4-5:17
    • K: Isaiah 4:3-5:16
  • Emor   (21:1-24:23)
    • A, S, Y, I: Ezekiel 44:15-31
    • K, R: Ezekiel 44:25-45:11
  • Behar   (25:1-26:2)       (in most years, this parsha is combined with Bechukotai )
    • A, S: Jeremiah 32:6-27
    • AH: Jeremiah 32:6-22
    • Y, I: Jeremiah 16:19-17:14
    • K, R: Isaiah 24:2–23
  • Behar - Bechukotai     (in most years the Torah portions for both parshot are
            read with the haftarah for Bechukotai )
    • A, S: Jeremiah 16:19–17:14  [41]
  • Bechukotai   (26:3-27:34, end)   (The person who reads the list of curses [verses 26:14-43] is not called up by name,
            and is supposed to read the curses in a whisper and as fast as possible)
            (In most years this parsha is combined with Behar )
    • A, S, AH: Jeremiah 16:19–17:14
    • Y: Ezekiel 34:1–27
    • I: Ezekiel 34:1–15
    • AP: Ezekiel 34:1–31
    • K, R, Iraq: Isaiah 1:19–2:11

Haftarot for Numbers[edit]

  • Bamidbar   (1:1–4:20)
    • Hosea 2:1–22
  • Naso   (4:21–7:89)
    • A, S, I: Judges 13:2–25
    • R: Hosea 4:14–6:2
    • Y, K: Judges 13:2–24
  • Behaalotecha   (8:1–12:16)   °
    • A, S, I, R, K: Zechariah 2:14–4:7
    • Y: Zechariah 2:14–4:9
    • Libya: Zechariah 2:14–4:10
              (°   This haftarah, in all traditions, includes Zechariah 3:2, which contains the very
              rarely used cantillation accent of mercha kefula, under zeh - "this [burning stick]".) [42]
  • Shlach   (13:1–15:41)
    • A, S, I, Y: Joshua 2:1–24
    • R: Joshua 2:1–21
    • K: Joshua 2:1–15
  • Korach   (16:1–18:32)
    • A, S, Y: First Samuel 11:14–12:22
    • R: Hosea 10:2–11:8
    • K: Hosea 10:2–11:9
  • Chukat   (19:1-22:1)
    • A, S, I: Judges 11:1–33
    • Y: Judges 11:1–40
    • R: Judges 11:1–21
    • K: Judges 11:1–17
  • Chukat  - Balak     (this occurs only when the Sabbath falls on the 12th of Tammuz)
    • Micah 5:6–6:8
    • I: Micah 5:4–6:8
  • Balak   (22:2–25:9)
    • A, S, Y, R, K: Micah 5:6-6:8
    • I: Micah 5:4-6:8
  • Pinchas   (25:10-30:1),   if before 18 Tammuz   (rarely read; read only in some of the years with a Second Adar)   °
    • A, S, I: First Kings 18:46-19:21
    • R: First Kings 18:46-19:16
    • K, some R, Syracuse (Sicily): Malachai 2:5-3:3 (Syracuse ends at 3:4, R ends 3:8)
            (°    in most years Pinchas falls after 17 Tammuz, and the haftarot for Matot is read instead. The haftarah for Pinchas is read rarely - and
              only in some   of the years that have a Second Adar, and - because of peculiarities in observing holy days in the Diaspora - is read in the
              Diaspora - as it is in the summers of 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2035, 2052, 2062, 2065, 2079, 2092 - only about half as often as it is
              read in Eretz Yisrael. See the note for the next Sabbath)
  • Matot   (30:2-32:42)°
    • A, S, Y, R, K: Jeremiah 1:1-2:3
    • I: Joshua 13:15-33
            (°   this Sabbath, or the preceding one, begins the three Sabbaths before the Fast of the 9th of Av (Tisha B'Av),
              the Three Sabbaths of Calamity, whose haftarot, at least for A and S, are two prophecies of Jeremiah,
                and one from Isaiah.   In most years, Matot is combined with Masei and only the haftarah for Masei is read;
              only in the same years that Pinchas occurs before 18 Tammuz are Matot and Masei read on separate Sabbaths.)
  • Matot - Masei   °
    • A: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 3:4
    • S, AH: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 4:1-2
    • I: Joshua 19:51-21:3
    • R: Isaiah 1:1-27
    • Y, some R: Jeremiah 1:1-19
    • Algiers, some Y: Jeremiah 2:4-4:2
            (° in most years Matot and Masei are combined in one Sabbath, and as customary only the second haftarah - the one for Masei - is read.)
  • Masei   (33:1-36:13, end)
    • A: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 3:4
    • S, AH, R, Y: Jeremiah 2:4-28, and 4:1-2
    • (acc to Isr.Wikip.) Y: Joshua 1:1-20
    • I: Joshua 19:51–21:3.
    • K: Joshua 20:1–9.

Haftarot for Deuteronomy[edit]

  • Devarim   (1:1-3:22)   (this is always Shabbat Hazon, the Sabbath preceding the Fast of Tisha B'Av, the 9th of Av)
    • A, S, I, R, K: Isaiah 1:1-27     (in some congregations this is chanted to the melody of the Scroll of Lamentations)
    • Y: Isaiah 1:21-31
    • Libya: Isaiah 22:1-13
    • Djerba: Isaiah 22:1-14 (some Djerba add at end 1:27)
  • Va'etchanan   (3:23–7:11)   (includes The Ten Commandments)
              (This is always Shabbat Nahamu ,   the first Sabbath after the Fast of the 9th of Av (Tisha B'Av),
              and the first of the Seven Haftarot of Consolation)
    • A, S, R, some I: Isaiah 40:1-26
    • Y: Isaiah 40:1–27 & 41:17
    • I: Isaiah 40:1–15
    • K: Isaiah 40:1–22
  • Eikev   (7:12–11:25)
    • A, S, I, Y: Isaiah 49:14–51:3
    • R: Isaiah 49:1–51:3
    • Libya: Isaiah 49:1–50:10
    • K: Isaiah 49:14–50:5
  • Re'eh   (11:26–16:17)   °
    • A, S, I, Y: Isaiah 54:11–55:5
    • K: Isaiah 54:11–56:1
      • a few Algerian (acc to Dotan) Isaiah 54:1–10
                (° According to the Shulchan Aruch, if Rosh Hodesh [the new moon] of Elul - which has its own haftarah
                (namely Isaiah 66) - coincides with Shabbat Re'eh, the haftarah of Re'eh, not for Rosh Hodesh Elul,
                is read because the Seven Sabbaths of Consolation must not be interrupted)
  • Shoftim   (16:18–21:9)
    • A, S, R, Y: Isaiah 51:12–52:12
    • I: First Samuel 8:1–22
    • K: Isaiah 51:12–52:8
  • Ki Teitzei   (21:10–25:19)
    • A, S, R, Y: Isaiah 54:1–10
    • I: First Samuel 17:1–37
    • K: Isaiah 54:1–17
      • a few Algerian (acc to Dotan): Isaiah 54:11–55:5
  • Ki Tavo   (26:1–29:8)
          (The person who reads the list of curses [verses 28:7–-69] is called to the scroll by name,
            and is supposed to read the list in a whisper and as fast as possible)
    • A, S, R, Y: Isaiah 60:1–22
    • I: Joshua 8:30–9:27
    • K: Isaiah 60:1–16
  • Nitzavim   (29:9–30:20)     (this is the last of the Seven Haftarot of Consolation. If the Sabbath of Nitzavim
            coincides with Shabbat Shuvah, then this last Haftarah of Consolation is read for Vayelech.)
  • A, S, R: Isaiah 61:10–63:9
    • Y: Isaiah 61:9–63:9
    • I: Joshua 24:1–18
    • Algiers (acc to Dotan): Hosea 14:2–10, and Joel 2:15–27, and Micah 7:18–20
    • K: Isaiah 61:10–63:1
  • Nitzavim   – Vayelech
    • Isaiah 61:10–63:9
  • Vayelech   (31:1-30)   °
        (°   It appears that Vayelech has no haftarah portion of its own, because Vayelech either takes the haftarah
            of Shabbat Shuvah or the haftarah of Netzavim. If Vayelech falls between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur,
            which usually happens, the haftorah for the Shabbat Shuva is read; otherwise Shabbat Shuvah coincides
            with Netzavim and so the haftarah of Netzavim is shifted to the week of Vayelech. Several editions - e.g., Hirsch,
            Hertz, ArtScroll - have assigned the Shabbat Shuva reading as the customary haftarah for Vayelech,
            some others - such as the IDF and JPS1985 - have no haftarah listed specifically for Vayelech.)
    • A, S (acc to ArtScroll, JPS1917), I, Y, Algiers, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Syracuse: Isaiah 55:6-56:8
            (This reading from Isaiah is also used as the afternoon (minchah ) haftarah for minor fast days, such as Gedaliah or Esther.)
  • Haazinu   (32:1-51)
    • A, S, R: Second Samuel 22:1-51
    • I, Y: Ezekiel 17:22-18:32
    • Algiers: Isaiah 61:10–63:9
    • K: Hosea 14:2–10
  • V'Zot HaBerachah   (33:1–34:12, end)
    • A, AH, I: Joshua 1:1–18
    • S, (acc to Isr.Wikip.) K: Joshua 1:1–9
    • Y: Joshua 1:1–9 & 6:27
    • K: Joshua 1:1–10
    • Portuguese (acc to Dotan): Joshua 1:1–9, and Isaiah 61:1, and Isaiah 62:5.

Haftarot for special Sabbaths, Festivals, and Fast Days[edit]

In general, on the dates below, the haftarot below are read, even if that entails overriding the haftara for a Sabbath Torah portion. However,
in certain communities, the first two haftarot below (that for Rosh Hodesh and that for the day preceding Rosh Hodesh) are replaced by the
regular weekly haftarah when the weekly reading is Masei   (occurring in mid-summer) or later.

  • Sabbath coinciding with the day preceding Rosh Hodesh,   (known as Machar Hodesh ),   except Rosh Hodesh Nisan, Tevet, or Adar, and except Rosh Hashanah
    • First Samuel 20:18-42   (which begins, "Tomorrow is the new moon ...")
      • Fez (acc to Dotan): additionally read the regular Haftarah.
  • Sabbath coinciding with Rosh Hodesh, except Rosh Hodesh Nisan, Tevet, or Adar, and except Rosh Hashanah
    • A, S, K: Isaiah 66:1–24 & repeat 66:23
    • Y, AH: Isaiah 66:1–24
    • a few Djerba: Isaiah 66:5-24 & repeat 66:23

[The holidays and special Sabbaths are listed in their usual sequence during the year, starting with Rosh Hashanah ]

  • First day of Rosh Hashanah
    • A, S: First Samuel 1:1–2:20
    • I, Y AH: First Samuel 1:1–2:10
    • R: First Samuel 2:1-2:21
    • K: Joel 2:15-2:27
  • Second day of Rosh Hashanah   (observed in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael )
    • A, S, Y: Jeremiah 31:1–19
    • I, AH: Jeremiah 31:1–20
    • R: Jeremiah 31:19-31;29   (some R continue to verse 31:35)
    • Baghdad: Jeremiah 30:25-31:19
  • Fast of Gedaliah, morning haftarah
    •     none
  • Fast of Gedaliah, afternoon haftarah
    • A, Y, AH, some S, some SM: Isaiah 55:6–56:8   (same as used on minchah of 9th of Av)
    • I: Hosea 14:2–10
    • (acc to Dotan, most Sephardic congregations have no haftarah for Fast of Gedalia)
  • Sabbath before Yom Kippur     (Shabbat Shuvah )   (usually the same week as Parsha Vayelech)
    • Hosea 14:2-10. Also, some communities add either Joel 2:15 (or 2:11)–17 or Micah 7:18–20.
      Hirsch says, because the Hosea reading ends on a sad note, A added the passage from Joel, S added the one from Micah. However, many communities nowadays add both these passages.
    • R, (Y, acc to Jerusalem Crown): Hosea 14:2-10
    • (acc to Hirsch as "prevalent custom") A, S: Hosea 14:2-10, Micah 7:18-20, Joel 2:11-27 (Dotan notes that this is done in "some communities" although contrary to the halachic practice)
      (ArtScroll has Joel as second, Micah as last; Dotan notes this is used in "a few communities", Hirsch says this is the practice in Eretz Israel.)
    • (acc to Hertz) A, S: Hosea 14:2-10, Micah 7:18-20, Joel 2:15-27
    • A (acc to Dotan, Koren, Hirsch, Jerusalem Crown, & Isr.Wikip.): Hosea 14:2–10, and Joel 2:15–27
    • S (acc to Dotan, Koren, Hirsch, & Jerusalem Crown), & AH: Hosea 14:2–10, and Micah 7:18–20
    • The choice of the reading from Hosea is almost universal because its opening words are Shuvah Yisrael - "Return, O Israel, to the Lord   your God".
              "Some few congregations" (acc to ArtScroll) read Isaiah 55:6–56:8 (the haftarah associated with Vayelech
              and with the minchah of fast days) instead.   (Some lists or books have no specific entry for Shabbat Shuva,
              leading to the supposition that the haftarah usually associated with the week's parsha - usually Vayelech - is to be read;
              and some apply a more complex exchange of haftarot if there is - as often occurs - a Sabbath in the four days
              between Yom Kippur and the beginning of Sukkot; in which case that Sabbath is Parsha Haazinu.) [43]
  • Yom Kippur, morning haftarah
    • A, S, AH: Isaiah 57:14–58:14     (R begin at 57:15)
    • Y, I: Isaiah 57:14-58:14 & 59:20-21
  • Yom Kippur, afternoon haftarah
    • the entire Book of Jonah, and Micah 7:18–20     (some communities omit the part from Micah)
  • First day of Sukkot
    • A, S, AH, K: Zechariah 14:1–21
    • Y, Aleppo: Zechariah 13:9–14:21
  • Second day of Sukkot   (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael )
    • A, S, AH, R: First Kings 8:2–21   (R ends with 8:20)
    • Y, I: First Kings 7:51–8:16
  • Sabbath of the intermediate days of Sukkot   (Shabbat Hol Hamoed Sukkot )
    • A, S: Ezekiel 38:18–39:16
    • Y, some I, Persia, and Aleppo: Ezekiel 38:1–38:23
    • some I, Posen (Poland), R: Ezekiel 38:18–39:16   (some I, and Posen ends at 39:10)
        (Although not an actual haftarah, just before the Torah reading on the intermediate Sabbath of Sukkot -- or if there is no intermediate Sabbath, then on Shemini Atzeret,
          the entire scroll of Ecclesiastes (Koheleth ) is read, concluding with a repetition of verse 12:13, without any specific blessings.)
  • Shemini Atzeret   (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael )
    • First Kings 8:54–66   (I, some A end at verse 9:1;   R end at 9:5)
    • K: Jonah (entire)
  • Simhat Torah
    • A, AH, I: Joshua 1:1–18
    • S, Y: Joshua 1:1–9   (Y add verse 6:27)     (some S follow this with the haftarah used for a bridgegroom [Isaiah 61:10-62:8].[44])
    • R, some I: First Kings 8:22–53   (this is the reading originally assigned by the Talmud for this day. [45])
  • First (or only) Sabbath of Hanukkah   °
    • A, S, AH: Zechariah 2:14–4:7
    • Y: Zechariah 2:14–4:9
              (°   This haftarah is recommended in the Talmud (Megillah 31a), in all traditions, includes Zechariah 3:2, which
              contains the very rarely used cantillation accent of mercha kefula, under zeh - "this [burning stick]".) [46]
              (It appears there was an ancient custom to read, or to read additionally, First Kings 7:51-8:21, describing the dedication of the first Temple.[47])
  • Second Sabbath of Hanukkah
    • A, S, Y, I: First Kings 7:40–50   (this is also the A haftarah for Yayakhel, which is also very seldom read because it often coincides with
              with Pekudei or with a special Sabbath, and in fact the two readings of this haftarah will never occur in the same year.)
    • R: First Kings 7:27–47
  • Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Adar (or of Second Adar)   (Sabbath of Parsha Shekalim )   °
    • A, Y: Second Kings 12:1–17    (this is the selection recommended in the Talmud, Megillah 29b)
    • S, AH: Second Kings 11:17–12:17
    • R, K: Ezekiel 45:12-46:5
              (°   This is the first of four Sabbaths preceding Passover. It occurs on the Sabbath that
              either coincides with the New Moon, or precedes the New Moon that occurs during the
              following week, of the month of Second Adar — or of Adar in an ordinary year. These
              four Sabbaths may be the oldest assigned haftarot, from Tosefta, Megillah   chap.4.)
  • Sabbath immediately preceding Purim   (Sabbath of Parsha Zachor )
    • A, AH: First Samuel 15:2–34
    • S: First Samuel 15:1–34
    • Y: First Samuel 14:52–15:33
  • Sabbath Shushan Purim   in cities that celebrate it   (same as for Parsha Zachor )
    • A, AH: First Samuel 15:2–34
    • S: First Samuel 15:1–34
    • Y: First Samuel 14:52–15:33
  • Purim (not an actual haftarah)
    • on the Eve of Purim, in a festive atmosphere, and in many congregations in the regular service on the morning of Purim, in a more sedate mood, the entire Scroll of Esther is read,
          preceded by a special blessing of God "who commanded us to read the Scroll" and followed by another special blessing of God "who avenges his people Yisrael"
  • Sabbath Shushan Purim   in cities that celebrate only ordinary Purim
    •   No special haftarah:   the usual haftarah for that week's parsha is read.
  • Sabbath immediately following Shushan Purim   (Sabbath of Parsha Parah )
    • A: Ezekiel 36:16–38
    • S, AH, Y: Ezekiel 36:16–36
  • Sabbath immediately preceding the second day of Nisan   (Sabbath of Parsha Hahodesh )   °
    • A: Ezekiel 45:16–46:18
    • S, AF (& AH acc to Dotan): Ezekiel 45:18–46:15
      • AH: Ezekiel 45:18–46:16
      • Algiers: Ezekiel 45:18-46:15 & 47:12
    • Y: Ezekiel 45:9–46:11
    • I: Ezekiel 45:18–46:18
              (°   If Rosh Hodesh [New Moon] for Nisan coincides with Parsha Hahodesh, then the haftarah for Hahodesh,
              not for Rosh Hodesh, is read because the obligation of this special parsha is greater. Dotan says that if
              Shabbat Hahodesh coincides with Rosh Hodesh, then S and SZ add to the Hahodesh haftarah the first
              and last verses of the haftarah of Rosh Hodesh [namely, Isaiah 66:1 & 66:23], if Shabbat Hahodesh
              falls on the day before Rosh Hodesh, then they add the first and last verses of the haftarah for
              the Eve of Rosh Hodesh [namely First Samuel 20:18 & 20:42])
  • Sabbath immediately preceding Passover   (Shabbat HaGadol )
    • Malachi 3:4-24 & repeat 3:23
      (AH read Malachi only if the Shabbat is also the Eve of Passover, otherwise the regular haftarah)
      • AH, AF, some SM: read the regular haftarah for that week
  • First day of Passover
    • Joshua 5:2-6:1 & 6:27
      • AH, (and A, acc to Dotan, and Benisch): Joshua 3:5–7, 5:2-6:1, & 6:27
                  (the Munkatcher Rebbe omitted verse 3:7) [48]
      • AF, R, and Perushim: Joshua 5:2–6:1
  • Second day of Passover   (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael )
    • A, S, AH: Second Kings 23:1–9 & 23:21–25 °
              (°   many, perhaps most, skip verses 23:10-20, but the Vilna Gaon
              recommended that these verses be read - except verse 13,
              because it mentions a shameful deed by King Solomon. Some
              congregations begin the reading at 23:4.) [49]
    • Y: Second Kings 22:1–7 & 23:21–25
    • I: Second Kings 23:1–9 & 23:21–30
    • K: Second Kings 23:21–30
  • Sabbath of the intermediate days of Passover     (Shabbat Hol Hamoed Pesach ) °
    • A, S: Ezekiel 37:1–17
      • AH: Ezekiel 37:1–14
    • Y: Ezekiel 36:37–37:14
    • I, R (and A and S, acc to Benisch): Ezekiel 36:37–37:17 (acc to Benisch, S stop at 37:14)
            (°   Although not an actual haftarah, it is a widespread practice to read the entire scroll of the Song of Songs, without any specific blessings, before the Torah reading on the intermediate Sabbath
              of Passover, or, if there is no intermediate Sabbath, then on the seventh or eighth day of Passover, whichever is a Sabbath).
  • Seventh day of Passover
    • Second Samuel 22:1–51      (Aleppo begins at 21:15)
  • Eighth day of Passover   (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael )
    • Isaiah 10:32–12:6     (also read on Yom Ha'atzmaut     [Israeli Independence Day, 5th of Iyar, May 14, 1948] [50])
    • I, K: Judges 5:1–31
  • First day of Shavuot
    • A, S, AH: Ezekiel 1:1–28 & 3:12   °
    • Y: Ezekiel 1:1–2:2 & 3:12
    • K: Habakkuk 1:1–3:19
              (°   The Shulchan Aruch directs the reading of Ezekiel 1:1 through 3:12
              continuously, but most skip all or part of chapter 2 and skip to 3:12.   Because
              the first chapter of Ezekiel describes the Heavenly Chariot, this haftarah
              is customarily read and expounded by a rabbi or an esteemed scholar,
              in keeping with the direction of the Mishna, Hagigah 2:1.)[51]
          (Although not an actual haftarah, immediately before the Torah reading in the morning service of Shavuot in Israel - in the Diaspora, this is in the morning service of the second   day of Shavuot - the entire
            scroll of Ruth is read, without special blessings.)
  • Second day of Shavuot   (in the Diaspora, outside of Eretz Yisrael )
    • Habakkuk 2:20–3:19  °
              (°   Many A congregations, after reading the first verse of the
              haftarah (namely 2:20), then read an Aramaic piyyut (poem),
              Yetziv Pisgam, extolling God's infinite power, after which the reading
              from Habakkuk resumes. A minority of congregations
              recite a different poem, Ata Vedugma, instead, and
              some do not interrupt the haftarah with any poem.)  [52]
    • R, some A: Habakkuk 3:1-3:19
  • 9th of Av (Tisha B'Av]), eve of     (not an actual haftarah)
    • the regular evening service on the eve of the Fast of Tisha B'Av, conducted in a funereal atmosphere, with the reading of the entire scroll of Lamentations, concluded with a repetition of
          of verse 5:21, without any specific blessings before or after, followed by a collection of dirges (kinot ). Some congregations repeat the reading at the end of the morning service.
  • 9th of Av (Tisha B'Av), morning haftarah
    • A, S, AH: Jeremiah 8:13–9:23
    • Y: Jeremiah 6:16–17 & 8:13–9:23
  • 9th of Av (Tisha B'Av), minchah (afternoon) haftarah
    • A, AH: Isaiah 55:6–56:8
    • most S: Hosea 14:2–10
    • Y, I: Hosea 14:2–10 & Micah 7:18–20
  • Fast days (other than those listed above), afternoon haftarah
    • A, and Algiers (acc to Dotan): Isaiah 55:6–56:8 (same as used on 9th of Av, afternoon)
    • S, Y: none
    • some SM (acc to Dotan): Hosea 14:2–10, and Micah 7:18–20.
  • Sabbath coinciding with Rosh Hodesh of Elul   °
    • Isaiah 66:1–24 & repeat 66:23
              (° According to the Shulchan Aruch, if Rosh Hodesh [the new moon] - which has its own haftarah
              (namely Isaiah 66) - coincides with Shabbat Re'eh, then the haftarah of Re'eh (Isaiah 54:11-55:5),
              not the haftarah for Rosh Hodesh, is read because the seven Sabbaths of Consolation must
              not be interrupted. However, in Frankfurt and Eastern Europe, it is the custom in such an occurrence
              to read the haftarah for Rosh Hodesh instead, and the second Sabbath afterward, which would be Parsha Ki Tetze,
              would double up and read first the haftarah Ki Tetze (Isaiah 54:1-10) and then haftarah Re'eh.) [53]

Haftarah for a bridegroom[edit]

It was customary in many communities to read Isaiah 61:10 - 62:8  (Italic would read 61:9 - 62:9)   if a bridegroom (who had married within the previous week) was present in the synagogue. Customs varied:

  • In some communities, this entire haftarah was read, supplanting the usual haftarah of that week.
  • In some communities, only a few verses (possibly Isaiah 61:10 - 62:5, although the literature is unclear) were read. They were
            read after the usual haftarah, either before or after — depending on local custom — the closing blessings of the haftarah.

When a Talmudically specified haftarah was to be read on a certain Sabbath (e.g., on Sabbath of Hanukkah), some communities
       did not read the bridegroom's haftarah, preferring to keep to the standard haftarah of the week. Again, customs varied:

  • In some communities, the bridegroom's haftarah was read.
  • Some communities, even though they normally read the entire bridegroom's haftarah for a bridegroom, now merely appended a few verses of it to the weekly haftarah.
  • Some communities omitted the bridegroom's haftarah altogether, reading the weekly haftarah instead.

Nowadays, this custom has virtually disappeared. No one reads a special haftarah for a bridegroom any longer, except the Karaites and perhaps intensely Orthodox congregations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Samson Raphael Hirsch, The Hirsch Siddur (orig. German 1868, English transl. 1978 (1978, NY, Feldheim Publrs) page 339, "The term Haftarah, derived from פטר [feter], 'to dismiss' [as in 2nd Chron. 23:8] is the designation used.... It is the concluding portion of the Schaharith [morning] service, and marks the 'dismissal' of the congregation from the first part of the service, as it were."
    Or feter can mean "to set free", as in 1st Chron. 9:33 and Prov. 17:14. Solomon Gaon, Minhath Shelomo: A Commentary on the Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews (1990, NY, Union of Sephardic Congregations) page 147; Israel Abrahams, A Companion to the Authorised Daily Prayer Book (1922, rev. ed., London) pages clvi-clvii; Israel Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels (1917, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1st series) page 4-5; it appears that in antiquity the Sabbath service ended with the haftarah so that the congregation was dismissed and free to go home. The word haftaro - הפטרה - is used in Midrash Rabbah of Genesis, sec. 69 (last paragraph), for "farewell speech".
  2. ^ Goswell argues that the arrangement "suggests we should understand the books of Joshua - Kings as illustrating and applying the theology and ethics of the Pentateuch." Gregory Goswell, "The Hermeneutics of the Haftarot," Tyndale Bulletin 58 (2007), 100.
  3. ^ a b Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.
  4. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 4.
  5. ^ Tosefta, Megillah, 4 (3): 1, gives the haftarot for the Four Special Sabbaths. A baraita in Megillah 31a, which has later additions by the Babylonian amoraim who add the haftarot for the second days of the festivals (and who sometimes change the order of the haftarot as a result) – gives the haftarot for every one of the festivals, including their intermediate Sabbaths, as well as a Sabbath which is also Rosh Hodesh, the Sabbath which immediately precedes Rosh Hodesh, and Hanukkah.
  6. ^ Talmud Babli, Gittin 60a.
  7. ^ Acts 13:15 states that "after the reading of the law and the prophets" Paul was invited to deliver an exhortation. Luke 4:17 states that during the Sabbath service in Nazareth the Book of Isaiah was handed to Jesus, "and when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written," the passage being Isaiah 61:1–2. Unfortunately, the Greek word used there meaning "found" does not make it clear whether the passage read was fixed beforehand or whether it was chosen at random. See Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.
  8. ^ Sol Scharfstein, The Book of Haftarot for Shabbat, Festivals, and Fast Days (2006, NJ, KTAV Publ.) page 14; Samuel N. Hoenig, "Haftarah-Sidrah: Mirror Images" in Michael A. Schmidman, ed., Turim: Studies in Jewish History and Literature Presented to Dr. Bernard Lander (2007, L.A., Touro College Press) vol.1, page 59.
  9. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 4-5. Among the reasons for doubting, ancient sources list many oppressive acts by Antiochus but none mentions this, the reading of Haftarot also dates from antiquity in places that Antiochus never ruled, and it seems doubtful that any anti-Jewish villain would be so punctilious as to forbid only the Mosaic books but permit the Prophetic books. Stephen Gabriel Rosenberg, The Haphtara Cycle (2000, NJ. Jason Aronson) page xxi, "But this [attribution to the Seleucid era] is a doubtful proposition as the Book of Maccabees tells us that the Jews were not permitted to even keep the Sabbath (I Macc. 1:45-50 and II Macc. 6:11) and that all scrolls of the Law were burnt (I Macc. 1:56). So all forms of Sabbath worship would have been prohibited in the Temple or outside of it. Josephus in his version of the events adds that all sacred books of the Law were destroyed (Antiquities XII:256). There is no reason to think therefore that the books of the Nevi'im [Prophets] would be allowed any more than the scrolls of the Law (Torah) themselves, and in any case it is hardly likely that such manuscripts were available to ordinary people." (emphasis in original). Also, Jacob Mann, "Changes in the Divine Service of the Synagogue Due to Religious Persecutions", Hebrew Union College Annual vol. 4 (1927) pages 282-284.
  10. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 120-121, citing Megillah 25b. Oddly, the Talmudic story is that the Rabbi found fault with the choice of haftara - but that selection is still read as the haftara for another parsha. Moreover, a study of the writings of Philo Judaeus, who died circa 50 CE, shows extensive reliance ("an overwhelming degree of correlation") on the same prophetic passages read as the haftarot for various special Sabbaths and holidays, which indicates that those haftarot were part of the liturgy decades earlier than the Talmud suggests; see Naomi G. Cohen, Philo's Scriptures: Citations from the Prophets and Writings, Evidence for a Haftarah Cycle in Second Temple Judaism (2007, Leiden, NL: E.J. Brill, Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism, vol. 123) page 69. A fragment from the 11th or 12th century in Cairo lists a few haftarot not now in use -- but also shows that the Torah readings used were different from what is now virtually universal (e.g. one Torah portion is Numbers 25:1-10, but the ubiquitous practice for the past several centuries is that one Torah portion, Balak, ends with verse 9, and the next week's, Pinchas, begins with verse 10). E.N. Adler, "MS. of Haftaras of the Triennial Cycle", Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 8, nr. 3 (April 1896) page 529.
  11. ^ a b Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
  12. ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 26; Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
  13. ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) pages 26-27; Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
  14. ^ Kesef Mishneh, Laws of Tefillah 12:12
  15. ^ Igrot Moshe, Orah Hayim Simanin   103.
  16. ^ See Binyomin Hamburger, Shorshei Minhag Ashkenaz, volume III, chapter "Sifra De'aftarta";   Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 146.
  17. ^ Joseph H. Hertz, The Authorised Daily Prayer Book (NYC: Bloch Publ'g Co., rev.ed. 1948) page 497. A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (NY: Henry Holt, 1932, reprinted NY: Dover Publ'ns, 1995) page 140, citing Soferim 13:9-14.
  18. ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page p.27.
  19. ^ Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 127; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113.
  20. ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 279-280.
  21. ^ Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" pages 113; Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 27; Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 270.
  22. ^ Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) pages 143 and 146 (citing Sotah 39b); Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 114.
  23. ^ Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 114; Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 27.
  24. ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) pages 270-280. Mentions of variants in the blessings are from this reference and from Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" pages 112-115, and Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) pages 147-148.
  25. ^ a b Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 30.
  26. ^ Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 129; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113.
  27. ^ Abraham Benisch, The Pentateuch and the Haftaroth, newly translated (Rodelheim, 2nd ed. 1864) vol.1, Genesis page 227, Exodus page 195, etc.; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Birkhot Hahaftarah" page 113; Rabbi Eliezer Toledano, The Orot Sephardic Shabbat Siddur ("Siddur Kol Sassoon")(Lakewood, NJ, Orot, 1995) page 434.
  28. ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 280.
  29. ^ Bernhard S. Jacobson, The Sabbath Service: An exposition and analysis of its structure, contents, language and ideas (Hebrew 1968, Engl. transl. 1981, Tel-Aviv, Sinai Publ'g) page 277.
  30. ^ Joseph H. Hertz, The Authorised Daily Prayer Book (NYC: Bloch Publ'g Co., rev.ed. 1948) page 497.
  31. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 164-165.
  32. ^ Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History (German 1913, English transl. 1993, Philadelpha, Jewish Publ'n Society) page 145; Arnold S. Rosenberg, Jewish Liturgy as a Spiritual System (2000, NJ: Jason Aronson) page 127. The Tosefta mention is in Megillah 4:18.
  33. ^ Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part ii)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 6, nr. 1 (Oct. 1893) page 2 (citing the Mishna of Megilla iv, 10, which discourages the use of 2nd Samuel, chap. 13 - the rape of Tamar - and Ezekiel, chap. 1 - the vision of the heavenly chariot. Also, Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 117-123.
  34. ^ See, generally, Adolf Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle (part i)" Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 5, nr. 31 (April 1892) pages 420-468 and "part ii)" (Oct. 1893) pages 1-73.
  35. ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) pages 29-30.
  36. ^ Ginzberg, Geonica, vol. 2 p. 298.
  37. ^ "The prophetic readings of the Byzantine ritual differed fundamentally from those of the other Rabbanite Jews of the diaspora. They have been preserved in the editions of the haftarot published with the Commentary of David Kimchi in Constantinople, 1505; and in the edition of the Pentateuch and haftarot, published in Constantinople, 1522" (and theorizing the Romaniote readings were a perpetuation of the selections of early medieval Eretz Yisrael). Louis Finkelstein, "The Prophetic Readings According to the Palestinian, Byzantine, and Karaite Rites", Hebrew Union College Annual, vol. 17 (1942-1943) page 423.
  38. ^ Among the authorities used were editions of humashim by: Joseph H. Hertz,(1937, 2nd ed. 1960 [the second edition added several holiday haftarot, probably on the authority of someone other than Hertz], London, Soncino Press)(cited as "Hertz"; Nosson Scherman, The Stone Edition (1993, Brooklyn, Mesorah Publ'ns, the ArtScroll Series)(cited as "ArtScroll"); Samson Raphael Hirsch, T'rumatch Tzvi, one-volume edition (1990, NY, Judaica Press)(cited as "Hirsch"); and lists appearing in editions of the Bible, including Jerusalem Crown: The Bible of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (2000, Jerusalem)(cited as "Jerusalem Crown"); Umberto Cassuto (1969, Hebrew Univ. in Jerusalem)(cited as "Cassuto"); Koren Publishers (2006, Jerusalem)(cited as "Koren"); Bible Society in Israel (1991, Jerusalem)(cited as "Isr. Bible Soc."; Aron Dotan, Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia (2001, Massachusetts, Hendrickson Publ'rs)(cited as "Dotan"); also by Aron Dotan, the Bible published for the chaplains and troops of the Israeli Defense Forces (1973, Tel Aviv)(cited as "IDF"); Jewish Publication Society translations in English (generally as "JPS"; specifically, the American Jewish Version cited as "JPS1917", and the JPS Tanakh cited as "JPS1985"); Abraham Benisch, The Pentateuch and the Haftaroth, newly translated (Rodelheim, 2nd ed. 1864)(cited as "Benisch"). And, of course, the very extensive list published as an appendix to volume 10 of the Encyclopedia Talmudit (1961, Tel Aviv) cols. 701-728. The 1854 book, A Jewish Calendar for Fifty Years from A.M. 5614 till A.M. 5664 [Sept 1853 to Sept 1904] by Jacques J. Lyons and Abraham De Sola (rabbis of similarly named synagogues, respectively Ashkenazic in New York and Sephardic in Montreal), which provided lists identified as the "German" and "Portuguese" custom, presumably the practice in their own congregations (cited as "Lyons"). All of these provided both Ashkenazic and Sephardic lists; Yemenite lists were provided in Koren, Cassuto, Jerusalem Crown, IDF; Italic lists were provided in Cassuto, Dotan; Mahgreb, Frankfurt-on-Main, and some others were provided in Hirsch, Dotan; the Encyclopedia Talmudit provided all of these and some others, citing more than a dozen sources. The Hebrew language version of this Wikipedia article, worked up by an Israeli team, as it read in the Spring of 2014 was also used (cited as "Isr.Wikip."). It is very probable that various lists represent the practices only temporarily favored, perhaps more than century ago, by only a few or even one congregation, possibly under the leadership of a particular rabbi or while using a particular humash then available, and therefore the lists were subject to change and might well have changed and changed again in the intervening decades. No two lists were entirely the same, and compiling such lists required different materials and expertise than used to edit or comment on the Bible.
  39. ^ a b Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 192.
  40. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 187-190.
  41. ^ Exceptionally, on combined weeks Syrian Jews used to read the haftarah for Behar. Those in the United States now follow the general Sephardic custom.
  42. ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music & Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page 29.
  43. ^ Menahem Ben-Yashar, The Haftarah Readings of Shabbat (Te)shuvah, Bar-Ilan University's Parashot Hashavua Study Center, Rosh Hashana 5768 (Sept. 2007) http://www.biu.ac.il/JH/Parasha/eng/rosh/eny.html; and Rabbi Mosheh Lichtenstein, Shabbat Shuva, the Israel Koschitzky Virtual Beit Midrash, http://www.vbm-torah.org/archive/haftara/54shuva.htm. It would appear these special rules have been long discarded, except perhaps by the intensely Orthodox; this calendar situation occurred in recent years in the week after Yom Kippur in 2005, 2008, 20012 and (will occur in) 2014, but checking the back issues of the liturgical calendars in the weekly Jewish Press (Brooklyn) and the Ezras Torah Fund annual luach and the Colelchabad luach for the Lubavitcher hassidim, as well the assortment of humashim and other resources used for writing this article, finds no mention of it.
  44. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 170.
  45. ^ Abraham P. Bloch, The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publ'g) page 208; and Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 169-170; because it mentions Solomon dedicating the Temple during Sukkos [Megillah 31a] , but Rav Amram Gaon (9th century) instead preferred the first chapter of Joshua since it dealt with events following the completion of the Torah and the death of Moses.
  46. ^ Macy Nulman, "The Liturgical and Musical Development and Significance of the Haftarah", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy, vol. 15 (1992) page p.29.
  47. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 173-174, citing Massakhet Soferim   20:10.
  48. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 139-140.
  49. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 140.
  50. ^ Abraham P. Bloch, The Biblical and Historical Background of Jewish Customs and Ceremonies (1980, NY, KTAV Publ'g) page 305.
  51. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 142.
  52. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) page 145; Macy Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer (1993, NJ: Jason Aronson) s.v. "Yetziv Pitgam" page 375.
  53. ^ Shlomo Katz, The Haftarah: Laws, Customs & History (2000, Silver Spring, Md.: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring) pages 34 and 149-150.

Further reading[edit]

  • Michael Fishbane. The JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2002. ISBN 0-8276-0691-5.
  • Laura Suzanne Lieber. Study Guide to the JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2002. ISBN 0-8276-0718-0.
  • David L. Leiber. "Etz Hayim: Torah & Commentary" available from www.jewishpub.org, 2001.
  • Jacob Blumenthal & Janet L. Liss. "Etz Hayim Study Companion" available from the Jewish Publication Society, 2005. ISBN 0-8276-0822-5
  • Kenneth S. Goldrich. "Yad LaTorah; Laws and Customs of the Torah Service. A Guide for Gabba'im and Torah Readers. ISBN 0-8381-0216-6 Available from the Book Service of www.USCJ.org, 2002
  • J. H. Hertz. "The Pentetuch and Haftorahs". Jewish Publication Society of America, 1917.
  • Shlomo [David] Katz. The Haftarah: Laws, Customs, & History. Silver Spring, Maryland: Hamaayan/The Torah Spring, 2000.
  • W. Gunther Plaut. The Haftarah Commentary. New York: URJ Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8074-0551-5.
  • [1] Indice dei contenuti audio/video del sito www.torah.it (Italian). Retrieved on 2008-08-03
  • Adolf Buchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a triennial cycle", Jewish Quarterly Review, vol. 5, pp. 420–268 (April 1893) & vol. 6, pp. 1–73 (October 1893).

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