The gavotte (also gavot or gavote) is a French dance, taking its name from a folk dance of the Gavot, the people of the Pays de Gap region of Dauphiné in the southeast of France, where the dance originated according to one source. According to another reference, however, the word "gavotte" is a generic term for a variety of French folk dances, and most likely originated in Lower Brittany in the west, or possibly Provence in the southeast or the French Basque Country in the southwest of France. It is notated in 4/4 or 2/2 time and is usually of moderate tempo, though the folk dances also use meters such as 9/8 and 5/8.
In late 16th-century renaissance dance the gavotte is first mentioned as the last of a suite of branles. Popular at the court of Louis XIV, it became one of many optional dances in the classical suite of dances. Many were composed by Lully, Rameau and Gluck, and the 17th-century cibell is a variety. The dance was popular in France throughout the 18th century and spread widely. In early courtly use the gavotte involved kissing, but this was replaced by the presentation of flowers.
The phrases of the 18th-century French court gavotte begin in the middle of the bar, creating a half-measure (half-bar) upbeat. However the music for the earlier court gavotte, first described by Thoinot Arbeau in 1589, invariably began on the downbeat of a duple measure. Later composers also wrote gavottes that began on the downbeat rather than on the half-measure: an example is Jean-Philippe Rameau's Gavotte Variée in A minor for keyboard. Various folk gavottes found in mid-20th-century Brittany are danced to music in 4/4, 2/4, 9/8, and 5/8 time.
In the ball-room the gavotte was often paired with a preceding triple-time minuet: both dances are stately, and the gavotte's lifted step contrasted with the shuffling minuet step. It had a steady rhythm, not broken up into faster notes.
In the Baroque suite the gavotte is played after (or sometimes before) the sarabande. Like most dance movements of the Baroque period it is typically in binary form but this may be extended by a second melody in the same metre, often one called the musette, having a pedal drone to imitate the French bagpipes, played after the first to create a grand ternary form; A-(A)-B-A. There is a Gavotte en Rondeau ("Gavotte in rondo form") in J.S. Bach's Partita No. 3 in E Major for solo violin, BWV 1006.
The gavotte is first described in the late 16th century as a suite or miscellany of double branles danced in a line or circle to music in duple time, "with little springs in the manner of the Haut Barrois" branle and with some of the steps "divided" with figures borrowed from the galliard.
The basic gavotte step, as described by Arbeau, is that of the common or double branle, a line of dancers moving alternately to the left and right with a double à gauche and double à droite, each requiring a count of four. In the double branle these composite steps consist of; a pied largi (firm outward step), a pied approche (the other foot drawn near to the first), another pied largi and a pied joint (the other foot drawn against the first).
In the gavotte's double à gauche a skip (petit saut) is inserted after each of the four components; the second pied largi is replaced by a marque pied croisé (the following foot crosses over the left with toe contacting the floor); the final pied approche is replaced by a grève croisée (the right foot crosses over the left, raised).
The double à droite begins with a pieds joints and petit saut, followed by two quick steps, a marque pied gauche croisé and marque pied droit croisé, during beat two, a grève droit croisée and petit saut on beat three and on the last beat pieds joints and a capriole (leap into the air with entrechat).
The gavotte became popular in the court of Louis XIV where Jean-Baptiste Lully was the leading court composer. Gaétan Vestris did much to define the dance. Subsequently many composers of the Baroque period incorporated the dance as one of many optional additions to the standard instrumental suite of the era. The examples in suites and partitas by Johann Sebastian Bach are well known.
Composers in the 19th century wrote gavottes that began, like the 16th-century gavotte, on the downbeat rather than on the half-measure upbeat. The famous Gavotte in D by Gossec is such an example, as is the Gavotte in Massenet's Manon. A gavotte also occurs in the second act of The Gondoliers by Gilbert and Sullivan and the Finale of the First Act of Ruddigore also by Gilbert and Sullivan.
Sergei Prokofiev employs a gavotte instead of a minuet in his "Classical" Symphony.
References in popular culture
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- Early 20th-Century recording artist Samuel Siegel recorded a ragtime mandolin tune called Gavotte.[clarification needed]
- Carly Simon's song "You're So Vain" includes the lyric "You had one eye in the mirror as you watched yourself gavotte". In this context it can be taken to mean a pretentious or egotistical style of dancing.
- The Stephen Sondheim musical Sunday in the Park With George uses the word gavotte as a satirical device in the otherwise irregular, non-steadily rhythmical, song "It's Hot Up Here" to start the second Act, "We're stuck up here in this gavotte."
- The Johnny Mercer song "Strip Polka" includes the lyric "Oh, she hates corny waltzes and she hates the gavotte".
- Geneticist W. D. Hamilton in his paper entitled "Gamblers since life began: barnacles, aphids, elms." in the Quarterly Review of Biology (1975) made an attempt at wit by referring to the drilled formality of the mechanisms of individual reproduction as "the gavotte of chromosomes".
- Agustin Barrios wrote a solo guitar piece called Madrigal Gavotte, which is a combination of the two styles.
- In the anime Kiniro no Corda (La Corda D'Oro), the "Gavotte in D by Gossec" is heard many times, though referred to only as "Gavotte".
- In the novel Good Omens, it is noted that one cannot determine how many angels can dance on the head of a pin, because angels do not dance—the exception being the Principality Aziraphale, who once learned to do the gavotte.
- The "Cutting Gavotte" is an attack in the Japanese version of the RPG Infinite Undiscovery.
- In the Broadway musical 1776 during the song "Cool, Considerate Men", reference is made to "Mr. Adams' new gavotte"—a reference regarding John Adams' ideas for a declaration of independence from Great Britain.
- In the 1967 movie, How To Succeed In Business Without Really Trying, the song "A Secretary Is Not A Toy" refers to a gavotte. The song discourages personal indiscretions with secretaries at the firm. The reference to a gavotte is meant to be ironic, as the original dance accompanying the song from the Broadway show was a modified gavotte.
- In the manga and anime One Piece, the skeleton musician character Brooke (and his "zombie," Ryuuma, which was given life by Brooke's shadow) has a signature technique: Gavotte Bond en Avant.
- In the Robert Pinsky poem Impossible To Tell the gavotte is mentioned in the first line.
- "The Ascot Gavotte" is a song in the 1956 musical My Fair Lady by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe.
- Percy Scholes, "Gavotte", The Oxford Companion to Music (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).
- Meredith Ellis Little and Matthew Werley, "Gavotte", Grove Music Online, edited by Deane Root (updated and revised 3 September 2014).
- Percy Scholes, "Gavotte", The Oxford Companion to Music (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), article; Gavotte
- Curt Sachs, World History of the Dance, translated by Bessie Schönberg (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1963): 389.
- Johann Joachim Quantz, On Playing the Flute, a complete translation with an introduction and notes by Edward R. Reilly (London: Faber & Faber, Ltd., 1966; paperback reprint, New York: Schirmer Books. 1975): 291.
- Rameau / Ingrid Heiler, 1960: Gavotte Variée (Gavotte and Variations) 
- Meredith Ellis Little, "Gavotte", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers).
- Alfred Blatter, Revisiting Music Theory: A Guide to the Practice (London and New York: Routledge, 2007): 28. ISBN 0-415-97439-9 (cloth); ISBN 0-415-97440-2 (NY, pbk).
- Scholes, Percy, The Oxford Companion to Music, O.U.P. (1970), article; Gavotte
- Scholes, Percy, The Oxford Companion to Music, O.U.P. (1970), article; Gavotte
- In his Musicalisches Lexicon (Leipzig, 1732), quoted in the preface to Johann Sebastian Bach The French Suites: Embellished Version Bärenreiter Urtext Edition. (Kassel: Bärenreiter,[full citation needed]).
- Thoinot Arbeau, Orchesography, translated by Mary Stewart Evans, with a new introduction and notes by Julia Sutton and a new Labanotation section by Mireille Backer and Julia Sutton. American Musicological Society Reprint Series (New York: Dover Publications, 1967): 128–30, 175–76. ISBN 0-486-21745-0.
- Guilcher, Jean-Michel. 1963. La tradition populaire de danse en Basse-Bretagne. Etudes Européennes 1. Paris and The Hague: Mouton. Second edition, 1976, Paris: Mouton. ISBN 9027975728. New, expanded edition, 1995, Spézet-Douarnenez: Coop-Breizh. ISBN 2909924394. Douarnenez: Chasse-Marée-Armen. ISBN 2903708592. Reprinted 1997.
- Semmens, Richard T. 1997. "Branles, Gavottes and Contredanses in the Later Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries". Dance Research 15, no. 2 (Winter): 35–62.
- Media related to Gavotte at Wikimedia Commons
- Video - Historical dance: renaissance gavotte in a circle
- Video - Basic baroque ballet gavotte steps with commentary
- Video - Solo gavotte from Lully's Armide, choreographed by Cécilia Gracio Moura and danced by Louis-Alexander Désiré.
- Video - Gavotte pas de deux from Lully's Thesée, by La Belle Danse Baroque Dance Company, Toronto
- Video - "Gavotte du Roi" (adapted from 1715 notation) for pas de quatre or square dance formation, by La Belle Danse Baroque Dance Company