Daniel_Ortega

By Wikipedia
Daniel Ortega
Daniel Ortega (cropped).jpg
President of Nicaragua
Incumbent
Assumed office
10 January 2007
Vice President Jaime Morales Carazo
Omar Halleslevens
Preceded by Enrique Bolaños
In office
10 January 1985 – 25 April 1990
Vice President Sergio Ramírez Mercado
Preceded by Himself (Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction)
Succeeded by Violeta Chamorro
Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua
In office
18 July 1979 – 10 January 1985
Preceded by Francisco Urcuyo (Acting President)
Succeeded by Himself (President)
Personal details
Born José Daniel Ortega Saavedra
(1945-11-11) 11 November 1945 (age 69)
La Libertad, Nicaragua
Political party Sandinista National Liberation Front
Spouse(s) Rosario Murillo (1979–present)
Religion Roman Catholicism

José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (Spanish: [ðaˈnje̞l o̞rˈte̞ɣa]; born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician who has been President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction and then as President. A leader in the socialist Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN), his policies in government have seen the implementation of leftist reforms across Nicaragua.

Born into a working-class family, from an early age Ortega opposed ruling President Anastasio Somoza Debayle, widely recognized as a dictator, and became involved in the underground movement against his regime. Joining the Sandinistas, he also travelled to Cuba to receive training in guerilla warfare from Fidel Castro's Marxist-Leninist government. After the Nicaraguan Revolution resulted in the overthrow and exile of Somoza's government, Ortega became President of the ruling multipartisan Junta of National Reconstruction. A Marxist-Leninist, his first period in office was characterized by a controversial program of nationalization, land reform, wealth redistribution and literacy programs.

Ortega's relationship with the United States was never very cordial, due to U.S. support for Somoza prior to the revolution.[1][2] Although the U.S. supplied post-revolution Nicaragua with ten of millions of dollars in economic aid,[3] relations broke down when the Sandinistas supplied weapons to leftist El Salvadoran rebels (something which Ortega later admitted occurred).[4] The Reagan administration of the United States funded the opposing rebel groups, known as the Contras, resulting in a vicious civil war. There was a UN brokered peace settlement in 1990, after which democratic elections were held. Ortega was defeated by Violeta Chamorro in the 1990 presidential election, but he remained an important figure in Nicaraguan opposition politics, gradually moderating in his political position from Marxism–Leninism to democratic socialism. He was an unsuccessful candidate for president in 1996 and 2001, before winning the 2006 presidential election.[5] He has made alliances with fellow Latin American socialists, such as Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, and under his leadership, Nicaragua joined the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.

Personal life[edit]

Early years[edit]

Ortega was born in La Libertad, department of Chontales, Nicaragua. His parents, Daniel Ortega Cerda and Lidia Saavedra, were opposed to the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. His mother was imprisoned by Somoza's National Guard for being in possession of "love letters" which the police stated were coded political missives. He has two brothers, Humberto Ortega, former General, military leader and published writer, and Camilo Ortega, who died during combat in 1978. He also had a sister named Germania who is also deceased.[6]

Ortega was arrested for political activities at the age of 15,[7] and quickly joined the then-underground Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN).[8] He was imprisoned in 1967 for taking part in robbing a branch of the Bank of America while brandishing a machine gun, but was released in late 1974 along with other Sandinista prisoners in exchange for Somocista hostages. While he was imprisoned at the El Modelo jail, just outside of Managua, he wrote poems, one of which he titled "I Never Saw Managua When Miniskirts Were in Fashion".[9] During his imprisonment, Ortega was severely tortured.[10] After his release, Ortega was exiled to Cuba, where he received several months of guerrilla training. He later returned to Nicaragua secretly.[11]

Ortega married Rosario Murillo in 1979 in a secret ceremony.[12] and moved to Costa Rica with her three children from a previous marriage.[13] Ortega remarried Murillo in 2005 to have the marriage recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. The couple has eight children,[14] three of them together.[7] She is currently the government's spokeswoman and a government minister, among other positions.[15][16] Ortega adopted stepdaughter Zoilamérica Narváez in 1986, through a court case.[17]

The Sandinista revolution (1979–1990)[edit]

For more details on Ortega's past presidency, see Sandinista National Liberation Front.

When Somoza was overthrown by the FSLN in July 1979, Ortega became a member of the five-person Junta of National Reconstruction, which also included Sandinista militant Moisés Hassan, novelist Sergio Ramírez, businessman Alfonso Robelo, and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, the widow of a murdered journalist. The FSLN came to dominate the junta, Robelo and Chamorro resigned, and in 1981 Ortega became the coordinator of the Junta.[18] As the only member of the FSLN National Directorate in the Junta, he was the effective leader of the country. The FSLN embarked upon an ambitious programme of social reform upon attaining power. 5 million acres of land were redistributed to about 100,000 families, a literacy drive was launched, and health improvements were carried out which got rid of polio and reduced other diseases.[19] The Sandinista government implemented a policy of forced conscription for all men aged 17 to 35. The Sandinistas used this army to help guerrilla groups throughout Central America. Ortega pursued a policy of centrally planned economy and nationalization. Ortega took a very hard line against opposition to his policies: On 21 February 1981, the Sandinista army killed 7 Miskito Indians and wounded 17.[20] On 23 and 24 December 1981 the army massacred 110 miners for demanding payment of back wages.[citation needed] Forced displacement has also been documented to have occurred with the native population: 10,000 individuals had been moved by 1982.[20] Thousands of Indians took refuge in Honduras and 14,000 were imprisoned in Nicaragua. Anthropologist Gilles Bataillon termed this "politics of ethnocide" in Nicaragua.[21] The Indians formed two rebel groups - the Misura and Misurasata. They were joined in the north by Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN) and in the south by former Sandinistas and peasantry who under the leadership of Edén Pastora were resisting forced collectivization.[20]

In 1981, United States President Ronald Reagan accused the FSLN of joining with Soviet-backed Cuba in supporting Marxist revolutionary movements in other Latin American countries such as El Salvador. People within the Reagan administration authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to begin financing, arming and training rebels, some of whom were former officers from Somoza's National Guard, as anti-Sandinista guerrillas. These were known collectively as the Contras. This also led to one of the largest political scandals in US history, (the Iran Contra Affair), when Oliver North and several members of the Reagan administration defied the Boland Amendment, selling arms to Iran and then using the proceeds to fund the Contras. Soon the country was in a civil war that claimed 30,000 Nicaraguan lives.[22]

The tactics used by the Sandinista government to fight the resistance have been criticized by some historians for their suppression of civil rights. On 15 March 1982, the Junta declared a state of siege, which allowed it to close independent radio stations, suspend the right of association and limit the freedom of trade unions. However, it has also been pointed out that the Human Rights Record of the Contras during the same period was far poorer, with documented cases of murder, rape, torture, used to terrorize the rural population. There is also evidence that the Contras engaged in destruction of schools, hospitals, and other infrastructure, in order to disrupt the social reform programs of the Sandinistas.[23][24]

At the 1984 general election Ortega won the presidency with 67% of the vote and took office on 10 January 1985. A report by an Irish governmentary delegation stated: "The electoral process was carried out with total integrity. The seven parties participating in the elections represented a broad spectrum of political ideologies." The general counsel of New York's Human Rights Commission described the election as "free, fair and hotly contested." A study by the US Latin American Studies Association (LASA) concluded that the FSLN (Sandinista Front) "did little more to take advantage of its incumbency than incumbent parties everywhere (including the U.S.) routinely do." However some people described the election as "rigged". According to a detailed study, since the 1984 election was for posts subordinate to the Sandinista Directorate, the elections were no more subject to approval by vote than the Central Committee of the Communist Party is in countries of the East Bloc.[25]

33 percent of the Nicaraguan voters cast ballots for one of six opposition parties—three to the right of the Sandinistas, three to the left—which had campaigned with the aid of government funds and free TV and radio time. Two conservative parties captured a combined 23 percent of the vote. They held rallies across the country (a few of which were disrupted by FSLN supporters) and blasted the Sandinistas in harsh terms. Most foreign and independent observers noted this pluralism in debunking the Reagan administration charge—ubiquitous in the US media—that it was a "Soviet-style sham" election.[26] Some opposition parties boycotted the election, allegedly under pressure from US embassy officials, and so it was denounced as being unfair by the Reagan administration.[27] Reagan thus maintained that he was justified to continue supporting what he referred to as the Contras' "democratic resistance".[28]

Interim years (1990–2006)[edit]

In the 1990 presidential election, Ortega lost to Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, his former colleague in the junta. Chamorro was supported by the US and a 14-party anti-Sandinista alliance known as the National Opposition Union (Unión Nacional Oppositora, UNO), an alliance that ranged from conservatives and liberals to communists. Contrary to what most observers expected,[29] Chamorro shocked Ortega and won the election. In Ortega's concession speech the following day he vowed to keep "ruling from below" a reference to the power that the FSLN still wielded in various sectors. He also stressed his belief that the Sandinistas had the goal of bringing "dignity" to Latin America, and not necessarily to hold on to government posts.

Ortega ran for election again, in October 1996 and November 2001, but lost on both occasions to Arnoldo Alemán and Enrique Bolaños, respectively. In these elections, a key issue was the allegation of corruption. In Ortega's last days as president, through a series of legislative acts known as "The Piñata", estates that had been seized by the Sandinista government (some valued at millions and even billions of US dollars) became the private property of various FSLN officials, including Ortega himself.[30]

Ortega's policies became more moderate during his time in opposition, and he gradually changed much of his former Marxist stance in favor of an agenda of democratic socialism. His Roman Catholic faith has become more public in recent years as well, leading Ortega to embrace a variety of socially conservative policies; in 2006 the FSLN endorsed a strict law banning all abortions in Nicaragua.[31]

Ortega was instrumental in creating the controversial strategic pact between the FSLN and the Constitutional Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, PLC). The controversial alliance of Nicaragua's two major parties is aimed at distributing power between the PLC and FSLN, and preventing other parties from rising. "El Pacto," as it is known in Nicaragua, is said to have personally benefited former presidents Ortega and Alemán greatly, while constraining then-president Bolaños. One of the key accords of the pact was to lower the percentage necessary to win a presidential election in the first round from 45% to 35%, a change in electoral law that would become decisive in Ortega's favor in the 2006 elections[citation needed].

Sexual abuse allegations[edit]

In 1998, Daniel Ortega's adopted stepdaughter Zoilamérica Narváez released a 48-page report[32] describing how, she alleged, Ortega had systematically sexually abused her from 1979, when she was 11, until 1990.[33] Ortega and his wife Murillo denied the allegations.[34] The case could not proceed in Nicaraguan courts because Ortega had immunity to prosecution as a member of parliament, and the five-year statute of limitations for sexual abuse and rape charges was judged to have been exceeded. Narváez took a complaint to the Inter American Human Rights Commission, which was ruled admissible on 15 October 2001.[35] On 4 March 2002 the Nicaraguan government accepted the Commission's recommendation of a friendly settlement.[17] As of 2006 Ortega continues to deny the allegations, but Narváez has not withdrawn them.[34]

2006 Presidential election[edit]

In 2006, Daniel Ortega was elected president with 38% of the vote. This occurred despite the fact that the breakaway Sandinista Renovation Movement continued to oppose the FSLN, running former Mayor of Managua Herty Lewites as its candidate for president. However, Lewites died several months before the elections.

The FSLN also won 38 seats in the congressional elections, becoming the party with the largest representation in parliament. The split in the Constitutionalist Liberal Party helped to allow the FSLN to become the largest party in Congress, however it should be noted that the Sandinista vote had a minuscule split between the FSLN and MRS, and that the liberal party combined is larger than the Frente Faction. In 2010, several liberal congressmen raised accusations about the FSLN presumably attempting to buy votes in order to pass constitutional reforms that would allow Ortega to run for office for the 6th time since 1984.[36]

Second presidency (2006–present)[edit]

Ortega in 2007
Presidential styles of
Daniel Ortega
Coat of arms of Nicaragua.svg
Reference style Daniel Ortega, Presidente de la República de Nicaragua Daniel Ortega, President of the Republic of Nicaragua
Spoken style Presidente Ortega President Ortega
Alternative style Señor Presidente Mister President

Soon after his inauguration, Ortega paid an official visit to Iran and met Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Ortega told the press that the "revolutions of Iran and Nicaragua are almost twin revolutions...since both revolutions are about justice, liberty, self-determination, and the struggle against imperialism."[37] Since the start of his second presidency, various measures have been introduced to combat hunger and to improve access to healthcare, education,[38] credit,[39] and social security.[40] In addition, other reforms have been carried out, including an enhancement of labour rights,[41] the introduction of low-interest loans and training for female micro-entrepreneurs in rural areas,[42] and the distribution of transport subsidies, scholarships, medicine, land titles, and housing materials throughout the population.[38] Altogether, these policies have helped to reduce high levels of poverty and inequality in Nicaragua.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49]

In June 2008 the Nicaraguan Supreme Electoral Council disqualified the MRS and the Conservative Party from participation.[50] In November, 2008, the Supreme Electoral Council received national and international criticism following irregularities in municipal elections, but agreed to review results for Managua only, while the opposition demanded a nationwide review.[51] For the first time since 1990, the Council decided not to allow national or international observers to witness the election.[52][53] Instances of intimidation, violence, and harassment of opposition political party members and NGO representatives have been recorded.[54] Official results show Sandinista candidates winning 94 of the 146 municipal mayorships, compared to 46 for the main opposition Liberal Constitutional Party (PLC).[55] The opposition claimed that marked ballots were dumped and destroyed, that party members were refused access to some of the vote counts and that tallies from many polling places were altered.[56] As a result of the fraud allegations, the European Union suspended $70m of aid, and the US $64m.[57]

With the late-2000s recession, Ortega said that capitalism is in its "death throes" and the Bolivarian Alternative for the People of Our America (ALBA) is the most advanced, Christian and fairest project. He also said God was punishing the United States with the financial crisis for trying to impose its economic principles on poor countries and said God was rewarding Nicaragua with an increase in GDP (PPP) to $2,600 per-capita from $1,800 a decade ago. "It's incredible that in the most powerful country in the world, which spends billions of dollars on brutal wars ... people do not have enough money to stay in their homes."[58][59]

During an interview with David Frost for the Al Jazeera English programme Frost Over The World in March 2009, Ortega suggested that he would like to change the constitution to allow him to run again for president.[60] In Judicial Decision 504, issued on October 19, 2009, the Supreme Court of Justice of Nicaragua declared portions of Articles 147 and 178 of the Constitution of Nicaragua inapplicable; these provisions concerned the eligibility of candidates for President, Vice-President, Mayor, and Vice-Mayor.[61]

For this decision, the Sandinista magistrates formed the required quorum by excluding the opposition magistrates and replacing them with Sandinista substitutes, violating the Nicaraguan constitution.[62] The decision was widely denounced by the opposing parties, the church and human rights groups in Nicaragua [63][64][65]

While supporting abortion rights during his presidency during the 1980s, Ortega has since embraced the Catholic Church's position of strong opposition.[66] While non-emergency abortions have long been illegal in Nicaragua, recently even abortions "in the case where the pregnancy endangers the mother's life", otherwise known as therapeutic abortions have been made illegal in the days before the election, with a six-year prison term in such cases, too—a move supported by Ortega.[67]

Ortega and his supporters celebrating his victory in the 2011 elections.
Ortega and his supporters celebrating his victory in the 2011 elections.

Ortega himself denies that the abortion legislation outlaws medical procedures necessary to save the woman's life if they result in the termination of pregnancy. "The medical Procedural Code, he says, is not affected by the law, and requires doctors to do what is necessary to save a woman's life if it is threatened by conditions related to her pregnancy."[citation needed] He claims that the accusations that the abortion laws outlaw medical procedures necessary to save the life of the mother are part of "a media war".[68]

Ortega was re-elected president with a vote on November 6 and confirmation on November 16, 2011. [69]

Foreign policy[edit]

Ortega with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in Russia on December 18, 2008.

On 6 March 2008, following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis, Ortega announced that Nicaragua was breaking diplomatic ties with Colombia "in solidarity with the Ecuadoran people".[70] Ortega also stated, "We are not breaking relations with the Colombian people. We are breaking relations with the terrorist policy practiced by Álvaro Uribe's government".[71] The relations were restored with the resolution at a Rio Group summit held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on 7 March 2008. At the summit Colombia's Álvaro Uribe, Ecuador's Rafael Correa, Venezuela's Hugo Chávez and Ortega publicly shook hands in a show of good will. The handshakes, broadcast live throughout Latin America, appeared to be a signal that a week of military buildups and diplomatic repercussions was over. After the handshakes, Ortega said he would re-establish diplomatic ties with Colombia. Uribe then quipped that he would send him the bill for his ambassador's plane fare.[72][73]

On 25 May 2008, Ortega, upon learning of the death of FARC guerrilla leader Manuel Marulanda in Colombia, expressed condolences to the family of Marulanda and solidarity with the FARC and called Marulanda an extraordinary fighter who battled against profound inequalities in Colombia.[74][75] The declarations were protested by the Colombian government and criticized in the major Colombian media outlets.

On 2 September 2008, during ceremonies for the 29th anniversary of the founding of the Nicaraguan army, Ortega announced that "Nicaragua recognizes the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia and fully supports the Russian government's position." Ortega's decision made Nicaragua the second country after Russia to recognize the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia.[76] A day after Venezuela recognised the two Republics, Nicaragua established diplomatic relations with Abkhazia, and followed this by establishing diplomatic links with South Ossetia. Embassies have been mooted, but as of 2013 these had still not been opened.[77]

When getting in office, Ortega threatened to cut ties with the Republic of China/Taiwan in order to restore relations with the People's Republic of China (like 1985-1990). But he did not do so. Ortega met with Taiwan's president in 2009 and both agreed to improve the diplomatic ties between both countries.[78] However, with a trade show from the PRC in Managua in 2010, he is attempting a two-track policy to get benefits from both sides.[79]

In September 2010, after a US report listed Nicaragua as a "major" drug-trafficking centre, with Costa Rica and Honduras, Ortega urged the US Congress and Obama administration to allocate more resources to assist the fight against drug trafficking.[80][81]

During the Libyan Civil War, Ortega was among the very few leaders who spoke out in clear defense of the embattled Muammar Gaddafi.[82] During a telephone conversation between the two, Ortega told Gaddafi that he was "waging a great battle to defend his nation"[83] and "it's at difficult times that loyalty and resolve are put to the test."[84]

Electoral history of Daniel Ortega[edit]

Presidential election results, November 4, 1984[edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 735,967 66.97%
Clemente Guido Chavez Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN) 154,327 14.04%
Virgilio Godoy Reyes Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 105,560 9.60%
Mauricio Díaz Dávila Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC) 61,199 5.56%
Allan Zambrana Salmerón Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) 16,034 1.45%
Domingo Sánchez Salgado Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) 14,494 1.31%
Isidro Téllez Toruño Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement (MAP ML) 11,352 1.03%
Total valid votes 1,098,933 100%
Spoilt and invalid votes 71,209 6.09%
Total votes/Turnout 1,170,142 75.42%
Registered voters 1,551,597
Population 3,165,000

Presidential election results, February 25, 1990[edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance % Votes
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro National Opposition Union (UNO) = National Conservative Party (PNC) / Popular Conservative Alliance (APC) / National Conservative Action (ACN) / Democratic Party of National Confidence (PDCN) / Independent Liberal Party (PLI) / Neoliberal Party (PALI) / Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) / National Action Party (PAN) / Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) / Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) / Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC) / Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN) / Social Democratic Party (PSD) / Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC) 54.74% 777,552
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 40.82% 579,886
Erick Ramírez Beneventes Social Christian Party (PCS) 1.18% 16,751
Moisés Hassán Revolutionary Unity Movement (MUR) 0.78% 11,136
Bonifacio Miranda Bengoechea Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRT) 0.60% 8,590
Isidro Téllez Toruño Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement (MAP ML) 0.57% 8,115
Fernando Agüero Rocha Social Conservative Party (PSC) 0.41% 5,798
Blanca Rojas Echaverry Central American Unionist Party (PUCA) 0.36% 5,065
Eduardo Molina Palacios Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN) 0.32% 4,500
Rodolfo Robelo Herrera Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN) 0.22% 3,151
Total valid votes 100% 1,420,544
Spoilt and invalid votes 5.97% 90,249
Total votes/Turnout 86.23% 1,510,838
Registered voters 1,752,088
Population 3,800,000

Presidential election results, October 20, 1996[edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo Liberal Alliance (AL) = Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) / Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN) / Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN) / Neoliberal Party (PALI) 896,207 50.99%
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 664,909 37.83%
Guillermo Osorno Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path (PCCN) 71,908 4.09%
Noel Vidaurre Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN) 39,983 2.27%
Benjamin Ramón Lanzas Selva National Project (PRONAL) 9,265 0.53%
Sergio Ramírez Mercado Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) 7,665 00.44%
Francisco José Mayorga Balladares Bread and Strength Alliance (Pan y Fuerza) = National Action Party (PAN) / Republican Strength 96 Alliance (ASR) 7,102 0.40%
Francisco José Duarte Tapia National Conservative Action (ACN) 6,178 0.35%
Edgar Enrique Quiñónez Tuckler Nicaraguan Resistance Party (PRN) 5,813 0.33%
Andrés Abelino Robles Pérez Nicaraguan Workers, Peasants and Professionals Unity Party (PUNOCP) 5,789 0.33%
Virgilio Godoy Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 5,692 0.32%
Jorge Alberto Díaz Cruz National Justice Party (PJN) 5,582 0.32%
Alejandro Serrano Caldera Unity Alliance (AU) = Social Christian Party (PCS) / Revolutionary Unity Movement (MUR) / Social Democratic Party (PSD) 4,873 0.28%
Elí Altamirano Pérez Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) 4,802 0.27%
Miriam Auxiliadora Argüello Morales Popular Conservative Alliance (APC) 4,632 0.26%
Ausberto Narváez Argüello Liberal Unity Party (PUL) 3,887 0.22%
Alfredo César Aguirre National Opposition Union 96(UNO 96) = National Democratic Party (PND) / Conservative Action Movement (MAC) / Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN) 3,664 0.21%
Allan Antonio Tefel Alba National Renovation Movement (MORENA) 2,641 0.15%
James Odnith Webster Pitts Democratic Action Party (PAD) 1,895 0.11%
Sergio Abilio Mendieta Castillo Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC) 1,653 0.09%
Moises Hassán Morales Renovating Action Movement (MAR) 1,393 0.08%
Gustavo Ernesto Tablada Zelaya Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) 1,352 0.08%
Roberto Urcuyo Muñoz Nicaraguan Democratic Party (PADENIC) 890 0.05%
Total valid votes 1,757,775 100%
Spoilt and invalid votes 91,587 4.95%
Total votes/Turnout 1,849,362 76.39%
Registered voters 2,421,067
Population 4,706,000

Presidential election results, November 4, 2001[edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
Enrique Bolaños Geyer Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) 1,228,412 56.31%
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 922,436 42.28%
Alberto Saborío Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PC) 30,670 1.41%
Total valid votes 2,181,518 100%

Presidential election results, November 5, 2006[edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 930,862 38.00%
Eduardo Montealegre Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (ALN) 693,391 28.30%
José Rizo Castellón Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) 664,225 27.11%
Edmundo Jarquín Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) 154,224 6.30%
Edén Pastora Gómez Alternative for Change (AC) 7,200 0.29%
Total valid votes 2,449,902 100%

Presidential election results, November 6, 2011[edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 1,569,287 62.46%
Fabio Gadea Mantilla Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 778,889 31.00%
José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) 148,507 5.91%
Edgar Enrique Quiñónez Tuckler Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (ALN) 10,003 0.40%
Miguel Angel García Alliance for the Republic (APRE) 5,898 0.23%
Total valid votes 2,512,584 100%

References[edit]

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  4. ^ "Salvador Rebels: Where Do They Get the Arms", The New York Times, 24 November 1988,
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  6. ^ "La Jornada - Jueves, 5 de Mayo de 2005". lajornadanet.com. 
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  8. ^ "Daniel Ortega Saavedra, candidato presidencial del FSLN". La Prensa (in Spanish). 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  9. ^ Vulliamy, Ed. "Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega; In the Lions' Den Again". Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  10. ^ Bernard Diederich, Somoza and the Legacy of U.S. Involvement in Central America, p. 85.
  11. ^ "Hispanic Heritage in the Americas: Ortega, Daniel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  12. ^ Reuters, 1 November 2006, FACTBOX-Five facts about Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega
  13. ^ Vulliamy, Ed (2 September 2001). "Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega; In the Lions' Den Again". London: The Observer. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  14. ^ "Cardenal Obando caso a Daniel Ortega y poetisa Rosario Murillo". Cardinal Rating. 2005-09-28. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  15. ^ "Iran and Nicaragua in barter deal". BBC News (London). 5 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-05. 
  16. ^ "Nicaragua-Venezuela Talk Cooperation". Prensa Latina. Retrieved 2008-01-15. ... Government minister and first lady, Rosario Murillo. 
  17. ^ a b Envio, March 2002, No 248 Case 12,230: Zoilamérica Narváez vs. the Nicaraguan State
  18. ^ "Daniel Ortega", Encyclopaedia Britannica (15th ed.), 1993 
  19. ^ Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe, second edition
  20. ^ a b c "ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONTROVERSY", Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
  21. ^ "3 - Le Nicaragua (French)", Gilles Bataillon. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
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  23. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1985). Turning the Tide. Boston, MA: South End Press. 
  24. ^ Grandin & Joseph, Greg & Gilbert (2010). A Century of Revolution. Duke University Press. 
  25. ^ Martin Kriele, “Power and Human Rights in Nicaragua,” German Comments, April 1986, pp56-7,63-7, a chapter excerpted from his Nicaragua: Das blutende Herz Amerikas (Piper, 1986). See also Robert S. Leiken, “The Nicaraguan Tangle,” New York Review of Books, December 5, 1985 and “The Nicaraguan Tangle: Another Exchange,” New York Review of Books, June 26, 1986; Alfred G. Cuzan, Letter, Commentary, December 1985 and “The Latin American Studies Association vs. the United States,” Academic Questions, Summer 1994.
  26. ^ 'The Sandinistas won't submit to free elections' Article from "Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting". November 1987
  27. ^ Ronald Reagan. Remarks Following Discussions With President Jose Napoleon Duarte of El Salvador. 16 May 1984
  28. ^ "Aid to the Nicaraguan Democratic Resistance". U.S. Department of State Bulletin. October 1987. Retrieved 2006-12-14. 
  29. ^ Alma Guillermoprieto, The Heart That Bleeds: Latin America Now, pp. 23-25
  30. ^ Shirley Christian. "Managua Journal; Victor's Lament: To the Losers Belong the Spoils - New York Times". Nicaragua: Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  31. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/20/world/americas/20nicaragua.html?_r=0
  32. ^ (Spanish) Zoilamerica Narvaez 48-page testimony about sexual abuse; Zoilamerica Narvaez 48-page testimony about sexual abuse (in English)
  33. ^ Time, March 23, 1998, An Ugly Family Affair: Charges of sexual abuse leveled against Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega swirl atop a power struggle
  34. ^ a b The Guardian, 7 November 2006, From comandante to caudillo
  35. ^ Nicaragua 12.230 - Admissible
  36. ^ News Paper Article: La Prensa http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2010/06/15/politica/27852
  37. ^ Nicaragua e Iran, "Unión Invencible" Hauser, Karim BBC Mundo, June 2007
  38. ^ a b "Latin American Program". Wilson Center. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  39. ^ Carroll, Eva (3 November 2011). "Daniel Ortega set for Nicaragua election victory but heroic sheen wearing off". The Guardian (London). 
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  42. ^ Richard Feinberg (2011-11-02). "Daniel Ortega and Nicaragua's Soft Authoritarianism". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  43. ^ "Nicaragua Under Daniel Ortega’s Second Presidency: Daniel-Style Politics as Usual?". Coha.org. 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
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  45. ^ http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=52737
  46. ^ Carroll, Rory (11 January 2009). "Second Coming of the Sandinistas turns sour". The Guardian (London). 
  47. ^ Amplifier, Scoop (2011-04-05). "Nicaragua: FSLN victory in November will permit change | Scoop News". Scoop.co.nz. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  48. ^ "Re-election for Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, continent’s poorest nation — MercoPress". En.mercopress.com. 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  49. ^ "Nicaragua: 21st century Sandinismo – or losing the revolution?". Red Pepper. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  50. ^ Robert Burbach, CounterPunch, 27 February 2009, Et Tu, Daniel? The Betrayal of the Sandinista Revolution
  51. ^ "Review follows election fraud allegations in Nicaragua". CNN. 2008-11-12. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  52. ^ "How to steal an election". The Economist. 2008-11-13. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  53. ^ "Conozca como Daniel Ortega preparo el fraude electoral". Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  54. ^ Wood, Robert. "Irregularities in Nicaraguan Municipal Elections". US Department of State. Retrieved 2008-11-14. [dead link]
  55. ^ Aleman, Filadelfo. "Nicaraguan opposition demands election review". Miami Herald. 
  56. ^ LA Times, 20 November 2008, Voter fraud allegations directed at Nicaragua's Sandinistas
  57. ^ Daily Times (Pakistan), 20 February 2009, COMMENT: The Mugabe of Latin America  —Carlos R Chamorro
  58. ^ "Nicaragua's Ortega says crisis is God punishing U.S". Reuters. 10 October 2008. 
  59. ^ Ortega Says Capitalism In Its Death Throes
  60. ^ Daniel Ortega - FROST OVER THE WORLD - Al Jazeera English
  61. ^ Global Legal Information Network
  62. ^ PH, Editor. "Presidente de la CSJ de Nicaragua tilda de "ilegal" reelección de Ortega". Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  63. ^ Jarquin, Leyla. "Oposición toca a rebato". Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  64. ^ San Martin, Nieves. "NICARAGUA: LA IGLESIA, CONTRA LA REELECCIÓN "ILEGAL" DE ORTEGA". Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  65. ^ EFE, International. "Núñez: "Reelección ilegal de Ortega aumenta persecución contra sociedad civil"". Retrieved 30 October 2011. 
  66. ^ Nicaragua brings in abortion ban: Nicaraguan President Enrique Bolaños has signed into law a ban on all abortions, even in cases when a woman's life is judged to be at risk 18 November 2006
  67. ^ Abortion Outlawed in Nicaragua Ten Days Before Controversial Elections 27 October 2006
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  69. ^ "Nicaragua electoral body confirms Ortega win - Americas". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  70. ^ "Nicaragua breaks diplomatic relations with Colombia" 6 March 2008 CNN
  71. ^ Mu, Xuequan. "Nicaragua breaks off relations with Colombian gov't". Xinhua News. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  72. ^ "Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela Agree to End Border Crisis". VOA. 2008-03-07. Archived from the original on 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  73. ^ "Leaders say Colombia crisis over". London: BBC News. 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  74. ^ Bridges, Tyler (2008-05-25). "Colombian rebels' loss of leader ends an era". Miami Herald. 
  75. ^ "Ortega expresa condolencias a FARC por muerte líder" (in Spanish). Reuters. 2008-05-25. 
  76. ^ "Nicaragua recognizes South Ossetia and Abkhazia". rian.ru. 
  77. ^ "Abkhazia, S. Ossetia may soon open embassies in Nicaragua". rian.ru. 
  78. ^ Ma Ying-jeou shouldn't meet Daniel Ortega, China Post, June 9, 2009.
  79. ^ Tim Rogers (14 Jan 2011), Nicaragua seeks economic relations with China 
  80. ^ U.S. adds three nations to drug-traffic-hub list - Americas - MiamiHerald.com
  81. ^ "transshipment point for cocaine destined for the US and transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing" Field Listing :: Illicit drugs, CIA, retrieved 2011-04-21 
  82. ^ "Live Blog - Libya Feb 22". Al Jazeera Blogs. 
  83. ^ Al Jazeera (24 February 2011). Latin America divided over Gaddafi on YouTube.
  84. ^ Washington Post article

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Francisco Urcuyo
as Acting President of Nicaragua
Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua
1979–1985
Succeeded by
Himself
as President of Nicaragua
Preceded by
Himself
as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua
President of Nicaragua
1985–1990
Succeeded by
Violeta Chamorro
Preceded by
Enrique Bolaños
President of Nicaragua
2007–present
Incumbent
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